Genghis Khan / Chinggis Khaan(birthname Temujin) (1162-1227)created Mongol confederation and empire • Chingghis and his sons Jochi (1185–1226), Chagatai (1187—1241), Ögedei (1189—1241), and Tolui (1190–1232).
From Nicholas Hooper and Matthew Bennett, Cambridge Illustrated Atlas of Warfare: The Middle Ages 768-1487
Horsemen and grasslands Mongolian horses: 12-14 hands (cf thoroughbreds: 15-17 hands). • The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland covers an area of 887,300 square kilometers (342,600 square miles).
Mongol Armies • All males between the ages of 15 to around 60 who were capable of bearing arms were eligible for military service. Mongol armies were based around a core group of light and heavy cavalry organised on the decimal system. The largest tactical formation was the ‘tuman’ consisting of 10,000 warriors. Three tumans usually constituted a Mongol army. The tuman was made up of ten regiments (‘minghans’) of 1,000 men. Each regiment contained ten squadrons ‘jagun’. The jagun was subdivided into ten troops called arbans. … The typical Mongol army was largely cavalry based, consisting of about 60 percent light cavalry and 40 percent heavy cavalry. Both units were crucial to Mongol strategy. Mongol light cavalry performed reconnaissance roles and acted as a screen for the heavy cavalry. These light horseman were armed with two composite bows, (one for long distance, the other for short), two or three javelins and a lasso. The heavy cavalry were equipped with a 12ft lance along with sabre for hand to hand combat.From http://historyofwarfare.blogspot.com/2008/04/mongol-invasion-of-europe-battles-of.html
Mongol Battle Tactics • The Mongol army was a people's army, that is, all Mongol adult males were enlisted. … The majority of Mongol troops were armed with mediocre, homemade weapons, and most carried only bows and arrows, along with axes and clubs. Because of this lack of weapons appropriate for hand-to-hand combat and their inferior training, the Mongols were hesitant to engage in frontal attacks, preferring instead to depend on their archery and mobility. The Mongols ... sent unit after unit galloping at the enemy as fast as could be with each man shooting one heavy arrow from as close as possible; each unit would then turn away and out of the path and line of fire of the next unit, which could follow almost on its heels. Thus the enemy would be repeatedly pounded by the Mongols' best shots, delivered by a quick and confusing succession of attacking units, each concealing the next until the last moment. The aim of such tactics, together with efforts at outflanking, was to wear down the enemy. If the Mongols faced cavalry, it was hoped that they could provoke a pursuit, with the Mongols shooting to the rear as they rode off. This would lead to the exhaustion of the opponents' horses. At some point, the Mongols, either on fresh horses or reinforced by additional troops, would turn against their pursuers, dealing them a crushing blow or harassing them as they withdrew. In general, the Mongols tried to avoid hand to-hand combat, because of their lack of personal arms and armor. • Reuven Amitai-Preiss
Materials: birch wood frame; layers of birch bark, horn (facing archer), sinew (on back), attached with fish glue; animal hide string. Arrows: 80-100 cm Draw weight: 166 pounds Range: 80-100 m (aimed), 300-350 m (maximum) Mongol archers and recursive composite bow
Mongol armor and weapons • Like the seventh-century Arabs, the Mongol elite adopted the weapons and armor of the peoples they conquered. Most Mongolian armor was of scale and lamellar variety. Most armor was made of hardened leather and iron, lanced together onto a fabric backing, sometimes silk. Mail armor was also sometimes used, but was rare, probably due to its weight and difficulty to repair. Mongol archers demanded the armor to be light enough so that when riding, it did not interfere with their mobility. • The composite bow was the favored weapon of the Mongols, but troops also carried a single-handed, curved blade of Turkic origin, a mace, and helmets. Mongols adopted weapons of peoples they conquered
Hulagu Khan (1217-1265), grandson of Genghis, founder of the Ilkhanate of Persia. Besieged and destroyed Baghdad in 1258 (on right), invaded Syria in 1259, destroying power of the Ayyubid sultanate of Damascus
Mongol Invasion of Europe: 1241-1242 Battle of Legnica/Leignitz (9 April). Mongol army consisting of two tumen (about 15,000) defeated an army of Poles and Germans (2000- 25,000) under Duke Henry II the Pious Mohi (11 April). The Hungarians led by King Bela IV were defeated by the main Mongol force (approx. 30,000) under the command of Batu Khan and his general Subutai