3-Tier Reading Model:Reducing Reading Difficulties for Kindergarten through Third Grade Students —Sharon Vaughn—
Purpose of 3-Tier Reading Model The 3-Tier Reading Model is designed to meet the instructional needs of all young readers, including those who are slow starters in kindergarten and those who continue to struggle in the early elementary grades. The 3-Tier Reading Model is a prevention model that is aimed at catching students early – before they fall behind – and providing the supports they need throughout the first four years of schooling.
What Consists of 3-Tier Reading Model? Tier I: Core Classroom Instruction Tier II: Supplemental Instruction Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention
Assessment: Progress Monitoring Benchmarks mastery no mastery Grade Level Learners Struggling Learners who have experienced: Both Secondary Interventions A & B No previous Secondary Intervention Secondary Intervention A only Primary Intervention & Tertiary Intervention (Special Education) Primary Intervention & Secondary Intervention B —10 weeks Primary Intervention & Secondary Intervention A —10 weeks 3 2A 2A 2B 2A 2B 1 1 1 Yes No Meet Exit Criteria No Yes Meet Exit Criteria Yes Meet Exit Criteria Movement through the 3 Tiers Primary Intervention
Why Use the 3-Tier Reading Model? • 3-Tier Reading Modelprovides intensive early intervention • for students most at-risk for reading difficulty, and therefore holds promise for reducing overall reading problems. • The 3-Tier Reading Model emphasizes: • early identification of students in need of help • supplemental instruction to prevent or alleviate reading difficulties • serving students who require occasional additional instruction as well as • students who require long-term support • assessing students on an ongoing basis, throughout the year • providing an avenue of supplemental instruction for students who do not • require special education services but who consistently fall behind
Why use the 3-Tier Reading Model? (Cont.) • Also, the 3-Tier Reading Model is composed of elements that are grounded in research on effective practices. Considerable research supports the importance of reading instruction that is systematic and explicit in the following areas: • phonemic awareness • phonics and word study • vocabulary • fluency • comprehension
Grouping Phonics & Word Study Phonemic Awareness Maximizing Student Learning Effective Reading Interventions Text Comprehension Fluency Vocabulary Critical Elements of Effective Reading Instruction 7
Phonemic Awareness Provide explicit and systematic phonemic awareness instruction that teaches segmenting and blending sounds Begin with auditory phonemic awareness activities and link phonemes with letters as soon as possible Use letters to manipulate phonemes and help students apply their knowledge of phonemic awareness when reading and writing 8
Phonics and Word Study Provide explicit and systematic word study instruction in a set of letter-sound relations how to blend sounds to read words Include practice in reading texts that are written so students can decode and read words using their phonics knowledge Give substantial practice for students to apply phonics as they spell words 9
Fluency Provide opportunities for oral repeated reading that include support and feedback Match reading texts and instruction to students' reading levels Provide opportunities to read narrative and expository texts Apply systematic classroom-based instructional assessment to monitor student progress in both rate and accuracy 11
Vocabulary Provide instruction in the meanings of words and in word-learning strategies Actively involve students in making connections between concepts and new vocabulary in both oral and written language Provide many opportunities for students to read in and out of school Promote wide reading (reading a lot and reading a variety of different types of texts) 12
Comprehension Explain, model, and teach comprehension strategies (e.g., predicting, comprehension monitoring, finding main ideas, summarizing, question answering, question generation) Provide comprehension instruction before, during, and after the reading of narrative and expository texts Promote thinking and extended discourse by asking questions and encouraging student questions and discussions 13
Tier I: Core Class Instruction Tier I is comprised of three elements: (a) core reading program (b) benchmark testing of students to determine instructional needs at least three times per year (c) ongoing professional development
Tier I: Core Class Instruction (Cont.) Focus For all students in K through 3 Scientific-based reading instruction and curriculum emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning reading Program Grouping Flexible grouping Time 90 minutes per day Benchmark assessment at beginning, middle, and end of the academic year Assessment Interventionist General education teacher Setting General education classroom
Tier I: Core Class Instruction Tier I reading instruction is designed to address the needs of the majority of a school’s students. An effective and comprehensive core reading program should emphasize the critical elements of reading instruction: (a) phonemic awareness, (b) phonics and word study, (c) fluency, (d) vocabulary, and (e) comprehension. The amount of time spent on each of these core areas varies according to students’ reading abilities.
Tier II: Supplemental Instruction Tier II is small-group supplemental instruction in addition to the time allotted for core reading instruction. Tier II include programs, strategies, and procedures designed and employed to supplement, enhance, and support Tier I.
Tier II: Supplemental Instruction (Cont.) For students identified with marked reading difficulties, and who have not responded to Tier I efforts Focus Specialized, scientifically based reading program(s) emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning reading Program Grouping Homogeneous small group instruction (1:3, 1:4, or 1:5) Minimum of 30 minutes per day in small group in addition to 90 minutes of core reading instruction Time Progress monitoring twice a month on target skill To ensure adequate progress and learning Assessment Personnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized reading teacher, an external interventionist) Interventionist Setting Appropriate setting designated by the school
Tier II: Supplemental Instruction (Cont.) When should Tier II instruction start? Tier II instruction must start as soon as possible after students have been identified through benchmark testing. How long is a round of Tier II instruction? One round of Tier II instruction lasts 10 to 12 weeks. After the first 10- to 12-week round of Tier II instruction, a decision should be made about the student’s instructional needs. The options considered should include: exiting Tier II instruction another round of Tier II instruction entrance to Tier III instruction for intensive intervention referral for special services (dyslexia, 504, etc.)
Tier II: Supplemental Instruction (Cont.) How do we group students for Tier II instruction? Tier II instruction is provided in groups of 3 to 5 students. These groups are organized according to the skills targeted for each student. When do students exit Tier II? As a general guideline, students are ready to exit Tier II instruction when they have reached benchmarks on the targeted skill.
Tier II: Supplemental Instruction (Cont.) What should Tier II instruction look like? Tier II Instruction should be systematic and explicit (instruction with modeling, multiple examples, and feedback to students) be paced to match each student’s skill level provide students with multiple opportunities to participate and respond provide students with corrective feedback Tier II interventionists coordinate with the general education classroom teacher so that Tier II instruction can be used to pre-teach and review skills.
“To Do” List for Tier II ___Select research-based supplemental instruction program(s) ___Train interventionists ___Identify students who have not met benchmarks ___Identify specific skill areas needing intensive instruction for each student ___Arrange student grouping according to focus of instruction ___Select components of the intervention curriculum that focus instruction on targeted skill areas ___Monitor progress every two weeks ___Use progress-monitoring information to adjust instruction, or exit students when appropriate ___Include a record of the supplemental instruction and progress- monitoring data in students’ files
Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention Tier III is specifically designed and customized small-group reading instruction that is extended beyond the time allocated for Tier I and Tier II.
Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention (Cont.) For students with marked difficulties in reading or reading disabilities and who have not responded adequately to Tier I and Tier II efforts Focus Sustained, intensive, scientifically based reading program(s) emphasizing the five critical elements of beginning reading Program Grouping Homogeneous small group instruction (1:3) Minimum of two 30-minute sessions per day in small group in addition to 90 minutes of core reading instruction Time Progress monitoring twice a month on target skill to ensure adequate progress and learning Assessment Personnel determined by the school (e.g., a classroom teacher, a specialized reading teacher, an external interventionist) Interventionist Setting Appropriate setting designated by the school
Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention (Cont.) How are students selected for Tier III instruction? There are three ways: If students have participated in two rounds of Tier II instruction and have not made sufficient progress. After receiving only one round of Tier II instruction because they show a marked lack of progress and further Tier II instruction is deemed insufficient to put them back on track. Students who have received previous Tier III instruction and have exited may re-enter Tier III as needed.
Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention (Cont.) How do we group students for Tier III instruction? One interventionist works with a group of 3 students, or fewer if students have extreme needs. These groups are organized according to the skills targeted for each student. When do students exit Tier III? As a general guideline, a student is ready to exit the intervention when he or she has reached benchmark on the targeted skills. Can students re-enter Tier III intervention? If an exited student again fails to meet benchmarks, he or she may re-enter Tier III intervention and exit as needed.
Compare Tier III with Tier II Similarly to Tier II, Tier III consists of carefully designed and implemented instruction emphasizing the basic critical elements of effective reading instruction. Tier III differs from Tier II in several ways in order to meet the needs of students whose core instruction and supplemental instruction has not provided sufficient support for them to be on track. The amount time in which they obtain supplemental instruction (Minimum of two 30-minute sessions per day) The group size (1:3) Adjusting instruction Duration of instruction (over a number of months or even years)
Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention (Cont.) • How to adjust instruction? • provide more examples and a wider range of examples (explicit modeling, explaining, etc.) • break down tasks into smaller steps • provide students with multiple opportunities to participate and respond • provide repeated opportunities for practice and review • drill repetition and practice review • provide additional opportunities for correction and feedback • increased time on-task • extend the length of the task • make learning visible • use, then fading prompts and cues.
Tier III: Instruction for Intensive Intervention (Video)
“To Do” List for Tier III ___ Train interventionists ___ Use benchmark testing to identify students not making progress in round two of Tier II supplemental instruction ___ Identify specific skill areas needing intensive instruction for each student ___ Arrange student grouping according to skill deficits ___ Select research-based, intensive supplemental instruction programs ___ Customize instruction based on targeted skill areas ___ Designate the intervention location ___ Monitor progress every two weeks ___ Use progress-monitoring information to adjust instruction, or exit students when appropriate ___ Include a record of the supplemental instruction and progress- monitoring data in students’ files
The Role of Progress Monitoring • Progress monitoring is the feature of instruction that allows interventionists to guarantee that students are on track and making adequate progress in their classroom. • In the Three-Tier Reading Model we refer to two types of progress monitoring: • benchmark assessments administered three times per year to all students • frequent (twice per month) progress monitoring to track progress and inform instructional decision-making during the course of Tier II or Tier III instruction.
The Role of Progress Monitoring (Cont.) • Benchmark assessmentsaid in early identification of students at-risk for reading problems. Testing of all students, kindergarten through third grade, is conducted in early fall, early winter, and late spring. • Frequent progress monitoringof students receiving Tier II and Tier III instruction is an essential component of the model. Teachers’ instruction improves when they use progress monitoring to (a) track student learning, (b) plan instruction, and (c) provide feedback to students.
A Planning Checklist for Implementing the 3-Tier Reading Model • ___ Review current reading practices within the school. • ___ Which core reading program is in place; is it aligned with scientifically based reading research? • ___ Which assessment tools are in place? • ___ Which supplemental programs are in place? • ___ Ensure that reading instructional practices are aligned with the scientifically based reading research? • ___ Develop a plan for collecting benchmark and progress-monitoring data. • ___ Develop a school-wide plan that allows classroom teachers to use grouping and to differentiate instruction based on benchmark-testing data (Tier I). • ___ Develop a school-wide plan for small-group supplemental instruction for students who do not meet benchmarks (Tier II). • ___ Develop a school-wide plan for longer, more intensive instruction for students who do not meet benchmarks after two rounds of supplemental instruction (Tier III). • ___ Set criteria for entry into and exit from Tier I and Tier II. • ___ Provide professional development as needed to implement steps.
Study Second-grade students were assigned to supplemental reading instruction in group size of 1:3. Duration of their reading instruction varied based on response to treatment.
Duration of Instruction and Response to Treatment This research study was designed to: • the number of students at-risk for reading problems who would not meet exit criteria after each 10-week segment of supplemental reading instruction, • the extent to which students who were provided intervention and responded positively (released from supplemental treatment) would “thrive” without supplemental instruction in the general education classroom, and • the expected amount of supplemental intervention needed to distinguish response groups.
Participants Forty-five 2nd-grade students (25 females, 20 males) were identified as at-risk for reading disabilities using a two-tiered identification process. Nominated by teachers in the lowest percentile of their class and having reading problems. Failed 2nd grade TPRI screen. All schools used the same core reading program.
Criteria for exit from the intervention were pre-established as: • obtaining a passing score on the screening portion of the TPRI; • median-score performance on the TORF above 55 CWPM on a second-grade level passage, with fewer than five errors; and • a score of 50 CWPM on second-grade fluency progress monitoring sessions for at least three consecutive weeks. Students unable to meet these criteria were reassigned to groups of three and continued receiving supplemental instruction for 10 more weeks.
How Was the Tutoring Conducted? • Intervention provided by 4 trained, experienced tutors. • Students were tutored in groups of 3. • Instruction was 35 minutes every day • Instruction was supplemental to core-reading instruction. • Eight intervention validity checks were provided on each tutor.
How many struggling readers exited at each of the three testing periods? early exit (10 weeks) n = 10: 6 boys, 4 girls; 9 Hispanic/Latino and 1 African-American mid-term exit (20 weeks) n = 14: 5 boys, 9 girls; 10 Hispanic/Latino, 2 African American, 2 White late exit (30 weeks) n = 10: 5 boys, 5 girls; 9 Hispanic/Latino, 1 White no exit (never met criteria) n = 11: 4 boys, 7 girls; 7 Hispanic/Latino, 1 African American, 3 White
What number of students who met exit criteria after 10 and 20 weeks of supplemental reading instruction continued to meet criteria? 23 of 24 students who met exit criteria after 10 and 20 weeks continued to make gains without supplemental reading instruction. All of the students who exited after 10 weeks of supplemental reading.
How many of the students who met exit criteria after 10 and 20 weeks of supplemental reading instruction made minimal progress in the classroom—defined as averaging 1 correct word per week on the TORF? • Early Exit: All continued to make progress for the next 10 weeks; for the subsequent 10 weeks, only 7 of the 10 continued to make progress • Mid Exit: Only 9 of 15 continued to make progress for the next 10 weeks.
Austin’s and Eduardo’s progress on the 2nd grade passages of the TORF over time (exited after 10 weeks of supplemental instruction). Note: Dotted vertical line is where each student met exit criteria and supplemental reading instruction was terminated.
Armando’s and Patricia’s progress on the 2nd grade passages of the TORF over time (exited after 20 weeks of supplemental instruction). Note: Dotted vertical line is where each student met exit criteria and supplemental reading instruction was terminated.
Comparison between two students who failed to thrive in the classroom and those who thrived.
General Findings • More girls than boys were identified as not meeting exit criteria, 4 boys; 7 girls. • 23 out of 24 students maintained or improved fluency scores after exit. • However, only 16 of 24 met criteria for “thriving” without intervention (thrive = 1 word or greater per week in fluency). • All 4 groups made greatest gains in fluency the 1st 10 weeks.
Language Proficiency and Exit English Spanish Early 82.3 66.1 Mid 76 87.4 Late 68.6 88.3