15 Giving an Oral Presentation
Learning Outcomes • Plan and develop the introduction, body, and conclusion of an oral presentation. • Choose and prepare visual aids for an oral presentation. • Deliver an oral presentation using an outline or note cards. • Plan and deliver an effective group presentation.
Developing the Introduction (LO15.1) Gain the audience’s attention. State the thesis. Make sure your thesis covers your topic as well as your opinion. Don’t be too wordy. Memorize your thesis. Look directly at your audience when stating your thesis. • Ask a thought-provoking question. • Reference a relevant quote. • Tell a brief story or description. • Share a shocking statistic, a surprising statement, or a comparison.
Developing the Introduction (Contd.) Give a forecast of the main points • Provide the listener with an idea of what they should learn from the presentation. • Be clear about the main points in case the audience is taking notes. • If using a research paper as the basis for the presentation, select the most interesting and relevant points. • You do not need to use all points from the paper.
Developing the Body (LO 15.1) Emphasize the main points. Use and/or combine the organization strategies. Narrating Describing Explaining a process Comparing and contrasting Explaining causes and effects Persuading Evaluating Solving a problem • Use logical order. • Give relevant details to support the main idea. • If based on a research paper, use only the most interesting and useful examples.
Developing the Body (Contd.) • Transition smoothly by selecting signal words in advance. • Cite Sources • Mention any sources used during the presentation. • Never omit citations. • Work on incorporating the citations without hindering the flow of the presentation.
Developing the Conclusion (LO 10.1) • Restate the thesis by using slightly different words than those used in the introduction. • Summarize the main points but do not restate each detail or example. • End with a statement, quote, or story that will leave your audience with a memorable impression. • Say thank you at the end of your speech as a courtesy and also to signal your presentation is finished. • Answer questions. • Anticipate the questions the audience may ask. • Be prepared by having notes handy. • Be honest if you don’t know the answer.
Choosing Visual Aids (LO 15.2) • Objects or models • Make sure it is large enough for the audience to see. • It should not be difficult to bring for your presentation. • Posters • Use posters to display photographs, drawings, maps, charts, graphs, timelines, or small objects. • Make sure the poster is neat and professional. • Ensure that the audience can see it.
Choosing Visual Aids (contd.) • Flip charts or white boards • Use flip charts or white boards when soliciting audience responses. • Write large enough for the audience to see. • Write only small amounts of information. • Face your listeners as much as possible. • Media Presentation • Write short sentences or phrases on each slide. • Elaborate the points verbally during the speech. • Avoid overusing color or styles. • Choose relevant artwork when appropriate. • Use added features such as sound clips and slide transitions conservatively.
Choosing Visual Aids (contd.) • Video clips • Use video clips that relate to your topic. • Make sure the clip is ready so that you can show it on demand. • Handouts • Handouts can be used as a backup if technical problems occur. • Distribute the papers at the end to avoid distracting the listeners. • Ensure the handout is professional and visually appealing. • Check for errors.
Delivering an Oral Presentation (LO 15-3) • Get psyched. • Focus on the positive. • Visualize yourself giving a great presentation. • Embrace your nervousness because it supplies an adrenaline boost. • Take a deep breath before beginning. • Look for smiling faces. • Use an outline or note cards. • Don’t write out your entire speech word for word. • Use an outline or note cards to keep you focused on the main points. • Include quotes, statistics, and sources that you want to mention. • Focus more on your audience than on your notes.
Delivering an Oral Presentation (contd.) • Speak clearly and enthusiastically. • Your audience will be excited if you are excited. • Vary your pitch and tone to emphasize important words. • Enunciate carefully. • Find an appropriate pace. • Communicate nonverbally. • Your audience will be watching your nonverbal cues. • Your facial expressions, posture, clothing, movements, hand gestures, and eye contact all impact the message you are sending. • Be professional and confident. • Don’t apologize if you make a mistake or forget something. • Keep going even if you make a mistake.
Delivering an Oral Presentation (contd.) • Incorporate visual aids. • Decide in advance when and how you will use your visual aids. • Try to display visual aids only when you are referencing them. • Hold the visual aid up and away from your body. • Don’t pass visual aids around the room. • If using PowerPoint, talk about but don’t read from each slide. • Use keywords on the slides to help you remember. • Have a backup plan • Have a secondary plan in case something goes wrong. • Bring additional materials in case of technology issues.
Delivering an Oral Presentation (contd.) • Practice your presentation. • Practice giving your speech several times. • If possible, gather a small audience for your practice. • Practice in front of a mirror if an audience isn’t available. • Try different methods for using your note cards and visual aids. • You may want to video your presentation. • Watch and critique the video. • Time yourself to make sure you meet the time requirements.
Group Presentations (LO 15.4) • Establish goals. • Make sure all group members understand and are willing to work to achieve the established goals. • Keep your overall purpose in mind. • Set reasonable goals. • Set benchmarks for establishing tasks. • Assign roles. • Assign a specific job to each group member. • Make sure all members are clear on their responsibility. • Members may need to work outside of class time away from the group.
Group Presentation (contd.) • Participate in group meetings. • Establish meeting times where everyone can participate. • Utilize email or other forms of technology if face-to-face meetings are impossible. • All members need to cooperate and contribute ideas for the presentation. • Organize the group presentation. • As a team, organize the introduction, body, and conclusion. • Decide what members will say and do during the presentation. • If the group can’t disagree on a specific point, then the group members can go with the majority rule. • All members should be willing to compromise to help the group accomplish the desired goals.
Group Presentations (contd.) • Practice the group presentation. • Practice in advance. • Have a dress rehearsal including visual aids. • Make sure the presentation flows smoothly. • Make sure all group members know their parts. • Deliver the group presentation. • All members should show up prepared. • If a member is absent, the group should step in to fulfill the duties. • Members should show enthusiasm, communicate nonverbally, and incorporate visual aids smoothly. • Keep going even if someone makes a mistake.