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Group 2: Parking Garage Monitoring System (PGMS)

ECE 477 Senior Design. From left to right : Matt Downes Stephen Osborn Pawanjit S. Chawla Anup R. Daniel. Group 2: Parking Garage Monitoring System (PGMS). Motivation. Noticed inefficiency in finding parking spaces in large facilities

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Group 2: Parking Garage Monitoring System (PGMS)

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  1. ECE 477 Senior Design From left to right : • Matt Downes • Stephen Osborn • Pawanjit S. Chawla • Anup R. Daniel Group 2: Parking Garage Monitoring System (PGMS)

  2. Motivation • Noticed inefficiency in finding parking spaces in large facilities • Lack of information regarding parking spot vacancies • Thought of a solution to this problem by allowing people to check vacant parking spots via the web

  3. Overview • Detection of vehicle occupancy by implementing a parking monitoring system • Ultrasonic sensors detect presence of vehicles • Atmel and multiplexers used to group thirty-two sensors to one transmission point • RF transmitters and receivers used to send/receive data

  4. Overview • Rabbit 3010 module used to process the information from multiple RF receivers. • Web server used to display vehicle occupancy information • A web enabled wireless device allows a person to find the closest parking space

  5. Project Description • Project consists of 4 modules • Sensor Module • Transmitter Module • Receiver Module • Base Station Module

  6. Project Description • Sensor Module • Consists of ultrasonic sensor SRF04 • Used to detect the presence of vehicles • Connection via RJ-45 jack • Power, ground and ping are received • Echo is returned

  7. Project Description • Transmitter Module, comprised of : • Atmel ATmega8515L • Controls the mux/demux for the ping/echo • Stores echo information to determine when to transmit • When transmission is needed, outputs information via the USART • Linx TXM-433-LC RF Transmitter • Receives data from the USART • Transmits to receiver module

  8. Project Description • Transmitter Module • Connected via RJ-45 to sensor module

  9. Project Description • Receiver Module • Consists of Linx RXM-433-LC RF Receiver • Constantly receiving data • Connects via RJ-45 module to the base station module • Sends data and ground to the base station module

  10. Project Description • Base station module • Consists of rabbit RCM 3010 • Receives data from receiver module via RJ-45 • Determines if valid data has been received • Displays the valid data on the web page • If invalid data is received, the rabbit ignores it

  11. Project Description • Web server • Displays parking information • Outputs the total spots in the garage • Outputs the used spots in the garage

  12. Conceptual Block Diagram Receivern SRF04 Ultrasonic Sensors TRANSMISSION CELL Linx TXM-433-LC RF Transmitter Receiver… SELECT LINE Receiver2 Linx RXM-433-LC RF Receiver1 M U X ATMEL ATmega8515L PING ECHO RABBIT RCM 3010 D E M U X WEB SERVER SELECT LINE

  13. Professional Components • Constraint Analysis & Component Selection • Patent Liability • Reliability and Safety • Ethical/Environmental Impact

  14. Reliability and Constraint Analysis Considerations: • Environmental - Temperature Variation - Humidity Changes • Part Quality

  15. Reliability and Constraint Analysis • Power Supply Reliability - Voltage Regulator - Electrolytic Capacitor - Schottky Diode • Sensor Reliability • Microcontroller Reliability • RF Chips Reliability

  16. Component Selection • Rationale for selection of components • Microcontroller • Computational Requirements • Memory Capacity • Ethernet Capability for base station • RF Module • Transmission Strength • Sensors • Type of detection • Detection Range • General Concerns • Weather Conditions

  17. Computational Requirements • Clock Speed • Rabbit Micorcontroller • Web server provides access to information • Parking vehicles in designated places • RCM2100 RCM2110 RCM2120 RCM2130 Microprocessor Rabbit 2000™ at 22.1 MHz • RCM3000 RCM3010 Microprocessor Rabbit 3000 at 29.4 MHz • Atmel Micorcontroller • 8-bit AVR MicrocontrollerUp to 16 MHz

  18. Memory Requirements • Mostly for processing data • Rabbit Micocontroller • RCM2100 RCM2110 RCM2120 RCM2130 • Flash 512K 256K 512K 256K • SRAM 512K 128K 512K 128K • RCM3000 RCM3010 • Flash 512K (2 x 256K) 256K • SRAM 512K 128K • Atmel Micorcontroller • 8-bit AVR Microcontroller • Flash 64K • SRAM 4K

  19. Ethernet Capability • Rabbit Micorocontroller • RCM2100 RCM2110 RCM2120 RCM2130 10Base-T, RJ-45, None 2 LED’s • RCM3000 RCM3010 10Base-T, RJ-45, 2 LED’s • Amtel Microcontroller • 8-bit AVR Microcontroller None

  20. Base Station Module • Microcontroller • Needs Ethernet capability • Speed is not a concern due to the interface with humans • Overall, chose RCM 3010 for Ethernet capabilities, memory storage, and performance to cost ratio

  21. Transmitter Module • Initially needed pins for each sensor • After midterm review, this was changed • After comparing the Atmel to the Rabbit for the base station use, the Atmel was chosen for the Transmitter Module

  22. RF Module • Transmission • Ability to be used in an inhospitable environment • Ability to use different frequencies • Reception • Ability to distinguish noise from actual signals • Ability to reproduce data from received signal

  23. Sensors • Detection Type • Inductive • Infrared • Ultrasonic • Detection Range • Needs to be able to detect vehicles at variable distances • Needs to be confined to a predetermined area so as not to detect vehicles in other parking places

  24. General Concerns • Most components will be subject to the climate of the garage • Industrial vs. Commercial • Wider range vs. More cost • Price of Installation • Upfront cost vs. Long-term cost • Power Consumption • Slow change in environment being monitored

  25. Patent Liability Analysis • Monitoring parking spaces to detect occupancy • U.S. Patent #6,694,259 • Using image processing to detect occupancy • U.S. Patent #6,559,776 • Using a plurality of sensors to monitor multiple spaces • U.S. Patent #6,292,110 • Using infrared sensors to detect occupancy • U.S. Patent #6,266,609 • Using GPS coordinates to detect occupancy • All could cause problems under doctrine of equivalents, while the second could be a literal infringement

  26. Patent Liability Analysis • Displaying parking occupancy graphically • U.S. Patent #6,662,077 • Uses a GUI to display occupied storage cells • U.S. Patent #6,502,011 • Uses a GUI to display information on the web • The first patent could cause a problem under the doctrine of equivalents • The second patent would be a literal infringement

  27. Patent Liability Analysis • Getting real time parking information • U.S. Patent #6,501,391 • Showing real time parking information “in the form of a textual listing, a graphical map, a video image, an internet web page or similar form” • This would cause a literal infringement because we show real time parking information via a textual image on an internet web page

  28. Patent Liability Analysis • Sensor Multiplexing • U.S. Patent #6,317,034 • The ability to hook many sensor lines up to one line (to be sent to a controller) • Possible infringement under the doctrine of equivalents.

  29. Ethical Impact Analysis • Testing of Software • Ensure that the RF receiver is warmed up before sending data • Warm the receiver by sending junk bytes • Multiple transmissions of data is done to avoid collisions. • Ensure that the RF output power level is FCC approved by using appropriate resistor values. • Safety Precautions • Voltage regulators get “hot” during operation, labels are placed on all such components • The IC’s are sensitive to electrostatic, care should be taken while handling such devices. • Schotky diodes are placed to protect the PCB’s from reverse polarity.

  30. Ethical Impact Analysis • Documentation • User manual will contain instructions to install each of the specific components for expansion. • User manual will mention about parts which can become “hot” during operation • User manual will document the functions of the LED’s in each of the modules for the technician to debug.

  31. Environmental Impact Analysis • Manufacture of PCB • PCB manufacturer’s use toxic and corrosive liquids • Improper handling of these liquids can lead to corrosion of and permeation through unprotected flooring • Circuit components contain harmful chemicals such as lead, cadmium and polychlorinated phenyls • Solutions • Identify work practices and engineering changes that reduce the risks. • Minimize releases and in turn reduce liability • Recycle the boards after their use

  32. Environmental Impact Analysis • Power consumption • Can be reduced by using the power down feature in the RF modules • Putting components that are not in use in sleep mode to reduce power consumption • Shipping and Packaging • Substitute with Starchafoam, which is biodegradable • Usage of starch-packing-peanuts, which are nontoxic, water soluble and eco-friendly. • Components should be packaged properly to avoid user to come in contact with fissured IC’s and broken electrolytic capacitors.

  33. Environmental Impact Analysis • Recycling • Recycling can recover contaminants like copper and other etched metals • Recycling reuses spent chemicals in wastewater treatment process • Recycling can recover contaminants like copper and other etched metals • Reduce waste by removing and recovering regulated materials from the printed circuit boards • The reduction of hazardous waste helps facilities to meet the requirements of waste reduction under RCRA, 40 CFR 262 and Executive Order (EO) 13148, Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental Management

  34. Design Components • Packaging Design Considerations • Schematic Design Considerations • PCB Layout Design Considerations • Software design Considerations

  35. Packaging Design Receiver #5 Cat5 Cable Receiver #4 Receiver #3 Receiver #2 Receiver #1 Rabbit

  36. Packaging Design Example Floor Plan Layout: Key: Receiver Transmitter Sensor Cat5 Cable connecting Sensors and Transmitter

  37. Packaging Design • Package One : Sensor Packaging • Will be mounted in front of each parking space, such that the ultrasonic sensors are directed towards the front of the car Schematic Notes : - All measurements in cm - Jack on side of box is for Cat5 cable (RJ45 connector)

  38. Packaging Design • Package Two : Transmitter Packaging • Will house an RJ45 connection brick, the Atmel ATmega8515L, the Linx TXM-315/433-LC RF transmitter, and its own power supply (used to power Atmel, Linx, and sensors). External antenna is for RF transmission • Will be mounted on post/wall of garage (many per each floor of garage) Schematic Notes : - All measurements in cm - Jacks on front of box are for Cat5 cables (RJ45 connectors)

  39. Packaging Design • Package Three : Receiver Packaging • Will house Linx RXM-315/433-LC-S RF receiver • Will be mounted on edge of garage (1 per garage floor) vertically above the Rabbit packaging • Schematic Notes : • All measurements in cm • - Coaxial out on front has been changed to RJ-45 out

  40. Packaging Design • Package Four : Rabbit Packaging • Will house Rabbit 3010 and its own power supply (used to power Rabbit and RF Receiver • Will be mounted directly below all of the receiver packages on ground floor of parking ramp • Schematic Notes : • - All measurements in cm • Jack on side of box is for Cat5 cable (RJ45 connector) • - Coaxial in on front has been changed to RJ-45 in (similar to Transmitter packaging

  41. Schematic Power Supply for Atmel & Receiver board

  42. Schematic Transmitter Module

  43. Schematic Receiver Module

  44. Schematic Power Supply of Rabbit Microcontroller

  45. Schematic Rabbit Module

  46. PCB Layout • No right angles on the traces • Place switching traces as far away as possible • Larger Power and Ground traces • Placed power supply together • Related components as close together as possible

  47. Atmel Layout

  48. Receiver Layout

  49. Rabbit Layout

  50. Software and Design Considerations • Capability to address each parking space uniquely - Assigning each transmitter a unique address - Assigning each sensor an address • Reliable RF transmission protocol - No feedback from the receiver end

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