Dimensions of IPE study: • Domestic-International • Domestic: behavioral outcomes are consequences of domestic pressure • International: behavioral outcomes are a function of international contingencies • Statist-Societal • Statist: outcomes are caused by the state (institutions, bureaucracies, leaders), which is relatively autonomous from the society’s social, political and economic pressures • Societal: outcomes are a function of societal preferences and demands
Four perspectives: • International political • International economic • Domestic statist • Domestic societal
Exercise 1(15 min): • How would scholars in each of the four camps explain trade liberalization? • Remember your answers to yesterday’s exercise, question 2. • In which perspective do your explanations fit? The outcomes, in your case, were trade flows (of paper products, technological products, and clothing). • Do you think there is a political component to this pattern of trade flows or is it just the market? • What is the perspective with the most explanatory power? Why?
Major “ideologies” in IPE: • Liberalism: • states focus on benefits from international economic cooperation • international cooperation is possible • international regimes can emerge, guiding state behavior • individuals are main actors • Realism: • international system characterized by anarchy, so states only act according to their own interests and do not abide by any other rules • cooperation is impossible • states focus on power maximization, then politics is a zero-sum game: gains are relative • states are main actors • Marxism: • classes (capital and labor) are main actors, each seeking to maximize its economic welfare • conflict because means of production are controlled by the minority, so labor, the majority, doesn’t get its full return • main issues: fate of labor in a world of internationalized capital; underdevelopment of the South (domestic classes, international classes)
Exercise 2 (10 min): • Remember your answers to yesterday’s exercise, questions 2 and 3: • What are the “ideological” nuances of your answer to question 2? To question 3? • Can your group come up with one answer of each ideology?
Readings for Wednesday, June 23: • Baldwin (read first) • Mastanduno • Full citations and links at: http://www.personal.psu.edu/asm218/412_SU07.shtm