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Minerals & Rocks - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Minerals & Rocks
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  1. Minerals & Rocks Chapters 4 & 5

  2. 4.1 Properties of Minerals • What is a mineral? • Naturally occurring • Inorganic (not made from living things) • Solid • Crystal structure • Definite chemical composition

  3. 4.1 Properties of Minerals • Identifying Minerals • Color • Color of mineral • Streak • color when rubbed on streak plate • Luster • How mineral reflects light

  4. 4.1 Properties of Minerals • Density • Mass in given volume (“heft”) • Crystal Structure • 6 types / different crystal shapes • Cleavage & Fracture • Way mineral breaks apart • Hardness • Mohs hardness scale ranking

  5. 4.1 Mohs Hardness Scale

  6. 4.2 How Minerals Form • 2 Ways minerals form • Form deep in earth’s crust as magma or lava cools • Form on earth’s surface when water containing dissolved minerals evaporates • Cooling rate determines crystal size • Fast = small Slow = large

  7. 5.1 Rock Classification • Minerals • Make up rocks • ~20 different types • Elements, Compounds • Identified by: • Color, luster, streak, cleavage / fracture pattern, hardness, density

  8. 5.1 Rock Classification • Rocks • Move & change due to earth’s forces • 1000’s of different types • 3 basic categories: • Sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic

  9. 5.1 Rock Classification • Rock Classification • Color & texture provide clues to mineral composition • Texture = look & feel of rock’s surface

  10. 5.2 Igneous Rocks • Igneous Rocks • Formed from magma or lava • Classified by: texture, origin, mineral composition • Extrusive – formed from erupted lava • Intrusive – formed from magma hardened beneath earth’s surface

  11. 5.2 Igneous Rocks • Cooling & grain size • slow cooling (intrusive)  coarse, large grains • Fast cooling  small, fine grains, glassy texture

  12. 5.3 Sedimentary Rocks • Sedimentary Rock • Formed when particles of rocks or plant/animal remains are pressed & cemented together

  13. 5.3 Sedimentary Rocks • Steps in forming Sedimentary Rock • Erosion: wind, water loosen rock fragments • Deposition: sediment settles out of water/wind  deposited • Compaction: pressed together • Cementation: minerals dissolve to form “glue” to hold particles together

  14. 5.3 Sedimentary Rocks • Types of Sedimentary Rock • Clastic: from rock particles • Organic: from living things • Chemical: from dissolved minerals

  15. 5.5 Metamorphic Rocks • Metamorphic Rock • Form from heat & pressure beneath Earth’s surface • From igneous or sedimentary rocks • Classified by grain arrangement

  16. 5.6 Rock Cycle • Rock Cycle Animation