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Human Evolution

Human Evolution

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Human Evolution

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Human Evolution BIO 1114 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson

  2. Animal Connection • Humans share many traits with animals • We are most similar to apes • Same 206 bones • All but 3 of 650 muscles the same • DNA is 98% the same • Same blood types Albino Gorilla

  3. Why are we so similar to apes? • Modern apes and modern man share a common ancestor who lived about 7 million years ago

  4. Sequence of Human Evolution • Hundreds of fossils have been found • Some of the major fossils will be discussed in this presentation

  5. Australopithecus afarensis • 3.5 million years ago • Nicknamed Lucy • Walked upright • Small brain • Skeleton human like • Feet • Pelvis • Upright stance

  6. Comparative Anatomy Lucy Gorilla Human • Gorilla pelvis adapted for knuckle walking • Human pelvis adapted for upright walking • Lucy’s pelvis very similar to human pelvis

  7. Knuckle Walking • Requires an elongated pelvis and long arms

  8. Lucy’s pelvis allowed her to walk like a human instead of an ape.

  9. Fossilized Footprints • Footprints left when a a pair of Australopithecines walked in the ash of a recently erupted volcano

  10. Lucy Chimp Skull Anatomy • Thick brow ridges like a chimpanzee • Cranial capacity 400 cc. Chimp 350 cc. • Teeth similar to human teeth

  11. Lucy: A Transitional Fossil • Transitional fossil shows characteristics of two kinds of animals • Represent the transition from one organism to another • Ape characteristics • Skull • Cranial capacity • Human characteristics • Walked upright • Feet • Pelvis

  12. Australopithecus africanus • 2.8 million years ago • Cranial capacity 460 cc

  13. Homo habilis • Cranial capacity 630 cc • Flatter face than Australopithecines • Used tools • Nicknamed handy man

  14. Homo erectus • 1.8 million to 35,000 years ago • 1,000 cc cranial capacity • Large brow ridges • Sloping forehead • More advanced tools than H. habilis

  15. Homo erectus • Skeleton very similar to modern man • Used fire • Traveled • Fossils found in Africa, Europe, China, Indonesia

  16. Homo neanderthalensis • 200,000 to 25,000 years ago • Cranial capacity up to 1750 cc • Larger than modern man • No chin • Sloping forehead • Buried dead with tools and flowers

  17. Homo sapiens • 200,000 years ago to present • Photo is a skull 35,000 years old • 1400 cc cranial capacity • Vertical forehead • Pronounced chin

  18. Modern Homo sapiens • Small front teeth • Small brow ridges • Rounded cranium

  19. Homo neanderthalensis Australopithecus afarensis Australopithecus africanus Homo erectus Homo habilis Common ancestor Modern apes Sequence of Human EvolutionOne of several possibilities Homo sapiens

  20. Evolution of Skull • Cranial capacity increases for a larger brain • Face become flatter • Brow ridges become smaller • Forehead becomes higher • Chin develops

  21. Sahelanthropus tchadensis • 6 to 7 million years ago • Flat face like Homo • Cranial capacity about the same as a chimp • Walked upright

  22. The End