Midterm Review Honors Biology 2012
Scientific Method Concept Map • Bubbles in a concept map are key terms • Arrows on a concept map show how big ideas are linked with short phrases
Experimental Design • Independent Variable • “What I change” • Dependent Variable • “What I count or measure” • Experimental Group • Group that receives the treatment • Control Group • Kept unchanged for comparison • Constants • Keep all things the same except I.V.
Redi’s experiment • 1. Redinotived that when flies landed on exposed meat, maggots would appear on the meat later. Rediws able to show that living things come from other living things. Complete an outline of his experiment:
Redi’s Experiment • Problem - Where does life come from? • Hypothesis - If Life comes only from other life then the meat that is covered should not have maggots
Analysis & Conclusion • Analysis – Yep. Flies and maggots seem to be a connection. No access to flies, no maggots. Meat by itself in the sealed jars does not turn into maggots. • Conclusion – Maggots are baby flies. All life comes from other life.
Analysis of Redi’s experiment 2. In his (Redi's) experiment the independent variable was the different treatments of the jars - lids, cloth netting, no lids 3. In Redi's experiment the dependent variable was the amount of flies
4. Redi would have begun collecting data as soon as he set up his experiment because flies are everywhere.
Make flashcards for the following voabulary: • homeostasis • pH • atoms • bonds • proteins • amino acids • carbohydrates • monosaccharides • polysaccharides • lipids • fatty acids • nucleic acids • nucleotides • inorganic • organic
homeostasis • A steady balanced state All body systems balanced Happy critter
pH • A measure of how much H+ (acid) or OH- (base)
atoms • The building blocks of all matter. Made of • protons (positive charge) • Neutrons (neutral charge) • Electrons (negative charge)
Types of bonds • Covalent – shares electrons • Ionic – transfer electrons • Hydrogen – form b/n slight charge differences hydrogen bonds – electrons arenot equally shared in covalent bonds, created charge imbalance that creates attraction between molecules Covalent bonds involve sharing at least one pair of electrons Ionic bonds – electrons move from one atom to another creating a charge difference
proteins • Include the following atoms: • C, H, O, N, S • Subunit = amino acids • Make important cell structures • Enzymes are special proteins • Made by ribosome • Fancied up and packaged by ER & Golgi
Amino acids • Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins Amino acids
Carbohydrates • Include the following atoms: • C, H, O (1:2:1 ratio) • Subunit = monosaccharide • Important for quick energy storage/release • Cell walls Polysaccharides = many monosaccharides bonded together Glucose is a monosaccharide or a simple sugar
Lipids • Include the following atoms • C, H, O – not 1:2:1 ratio • Subunits are fatty acids and glycerol • Not a true polymer • Important for longer term energy storage/retrieval • Also good at insulating, protecting
Nucleic Acids • Include the atoms • C, H, O, N, P • Subunit is the nucleotide • Types of nucleotides: A, C, T, G, U • DNA = double stranded, RNA = single stranded • Also includes ATP
Organic or Inorganic? • Organic compounds have C-H bonds organic inorganic
How does this robin maintain homeostasis? • It’s warm blooded, even when it’s cold its body maintains a near constant temperature. This involves internal feedback mechanisms that work in much the same way as a thermostat works in your house. This is what you do, too • Temperature Too low? = shivering produces heat that warms you • Temp Too warm? = sweating cools you off
Common table salt • Ionic bonds - because the Sodium loses an electron to Chlorine
Soap has a pH of 10 • pH of 10 = base
Make flash cards for the following vocabulary • Nucleus • Chromosomes • Plasma membrane (cell membrane) • Cell wall • Mitochondria • Vacuoles • Chloroplasts • Ribosomes • Magnification • Resolution • Membrane-bound organelles • Prokaryote • eukaryote
Plant cells vs Animal cells Plant Cells Animal Cells • Cell Wall & cell membrane • Chloroplasts • Contain chlorophyll • Mitochondria • Large central vacuole • Cell membrane (no cell wall) • Centrioles • Mitochondria • Smaller vacuoles • lysosome
Why might chloroplasts be more numerous in a leaf than a stem? • Leaf is the organ of the plant that conducts photosynthesis so it has lots of chloroplasts. Stems don’t do as much photosynthesis, so they don’t have as many chloroplasts.
Why might a muscle cell have more mitochondria? • Muscle cells use a lot of ATP, so they have many mitochondria to provide that ATP by cellular respiration
How are Prokaryotes different from Eukaryotes? Prokaryotes Eukaryotes • No nucleus • No membrane-bound organelles • DNA loose in cytoplasm • Small primitive ribosomes • DNA in true nucleus • Membrane-bound organelles • ER, Golgi, vacuole, mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc • Larger ribosomes Both have cell membrane, DNA, ribosomes and cytoplasm
Microscope magnification Multiply ocular lens x objective lens to get total magnification
Other cartoons of microscopes Make sure you can identify the parts and how to use a microscope
Make flashcards • Diffusion • Osmosis • Concentration gradient • Passive transport • Active transport • Semi-permeable membrane (selectively permeable membrane)