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Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia

Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia

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Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia

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  1. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia • 30th July 2003 • Islamic Human Rights Commission • Saied Reza Ameli • ssameli@ut.ac.ir Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  2. Introduction: What are the major changes in the Socio-Political structure of today’s world society? • There are three interlinked structural changes : • 1. Emergence of Instantaneous Communication, which is major source for globalization area Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  3. Globalization era is more complicated world • We are the first generation of globalization era, therefore we are experiencing non-institutional world, and it is indeed transitional world with constant changes. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  4. 2. Emergence of virtual world, virtual reality Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  5. 3. Collapse of Soviet Union Turned Bilateral Power into Unilateral Power • the 1990s were a time of insecurity, continuous change, and a quest for new structures for an incipient post-Cold War international system. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  6. On the other hand politicization of Art and Cinema has corrupted whole public sphere. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  7. Ian Scott has discussed the role of Hollywood on foreign policy of the United States and its effect on Public Opinion Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  8. Why democracy and Why Islamophobia? • why is it that America or Western governments are continually insulting Muslims for not having democracy in Muslim lands? Why always are they encouraging us to establish liberal democracy in our lands because to do otherwise would mean that we are an uncivilised people with a barbaric culture. • I feel that there is a connection between the democracy they want us to practice and the imprisonment of faith i.e. the terms of democracy that they put forward for us to follow and the isolation of faith, of religion from society. • Islamophobia Policy is also part marginalization of faith. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  9. Concept of Democracy • Democracy should reflect the idea and interest of the people. • Democracy is about participation of the people in political structure and accountability of the rulers to the voters. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  10. Challenges of Democracy • 1. Place of non-state actors is very significant. • 2. Equality and Democracy: ‘how much equality is required for a fully developed democratic system is a fundamental issue for democracy. Dahl (2001)notes the spread of democracy and equality during the twentieth century. He believes while the advanced welfare democracies of the late twentieth century started to bring about greater equality, these advances have been reversed in the last twenty years. • 3. National democracy in price of trans-national dictatorship and war is another challenge of democracy. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  11. Typology of democracy • In philosophical theory, there are two major democracies today: • Liberal democracy: Liberal democracy justifies the vote of majority; its major concern is to get more participation of the people. • Democratic Liberalism: democratic liberalism do not care for Majority to be involve in politics, but it respect the vote and participation of elites and experts of the society for the benefits of people (Bellamy, 1999). • In reality, democracy is very ideological. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  12. Ideology and Democracy • James F. Bohman (1991: 93) identified four necessary but not sufficient conditions of communication for democratic decision making: such agreements must (1) be formally and procedurally correct, (2) be cognitively adequate, (3) concern issues on which consensus or compromise can be reached, and (4) be free of ideology. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  13. Ideological Democracy • Ideological democracy refers to ruling the society overtly by democracy and covertly by an economical ideology. • Here democracy considered as a good language for domination policy. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  14. Democracy, Ideology and Patriotism • Democracy depends on vote of people of the state. • Democracy was an innovation of nation-state and it is therefore very patriotic. While democracy may suit national community, it can be threat for trans-national of millions of masses out of the territory. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  15. The dominant ideology thesis • This thesis suggests that there is an orientation in local and global extend a set of beliefs which dominates all subordinate classes tends to inhibit the development of radical political dissent (Abercrombie and Turner, 1978:149) • Abercrombie, N. and Turner, B. S. (1978)The Dominant Ideology Thesis, in The British Jounnal of Sociology, Vol. 29 (2), pp. 149-170). Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  16. Forcing them to be free • Mark Peceny (1999:549) examined the historical relationship between U.S. military intervention and the democratization of target states from 1898-1992 using the Policy III data set to measure democracy. He argues that U.S. military intervention in and of itself does not have a positive impact on democracy. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  17. Ideological democracy • When democracy is used as a tool for implementation of an agenda for social, cultural and political domination, then we are facing ideological democracy. • Here overt democracy creates legitimated ground for covert illegitimating agenda. • In contrast to democracy supposedly respecting people no matter minority or majority, Ideological democracy excludes all those not considered as ‘We’; either you are with us or against us. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  18. Ideological democracy and Violence • To understand Ideological Democracy in relation to global violence one needs to explore this relationship in a global sphere. • Global and Ideological violence should also be examined in relation to hard and soft power. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  19. Hard Globalization from above and Hard Violence from below • Hard globalization can be defined as an orientation for global domination backed and equipped by war industry. • According to domination theory, hard globalization can be seen as power for reinforcing the global domination of the superpower of the World. Hear hard refers to the global militant enactment of power and political policy in a transnational extend. Mass destruction energy is not equipment for supporting human equality but indeed it is a hard dictation of domination policy. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  20. Domination War • The idea of hegemonic war has long been viewed as a distinctive kind of conflict (Levy, 1985:344) which considered as a great turning point in world political history; that reordered the international system and propelled history in new and uncharted directions. Idea of extensive war, systemic war, hyper war or global war explain the question on which state will govern the system, as well as what ideas and values will predominate, thereby determining the ethos of succeeding ages (Gilpin, 1981). Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  21. Theories of global war • There are many theories which attempted to formulate global war such as Toynbee’s (1954) balance of power theory, Gilpin’s (1981) theory of war and change which explain the integral role of war in the evolution of a global system governed by a dominant power by virtue of its military and economic strength, place of world war in the capitalist world economy of Wallerstein (1984), Doran’s (1983) Cycle of Relative Power. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  22. Long Cycle Theory • Among global war’s theory, ‘long cycle’ of Modelski (1978) is highly structured and more influential theory. This theory sees global political system originating around 1500. This system has been characterized by regular cycles of world leadership and system management over the last five centuries. A world power emerges from a global war with monopoly control over military capabilities of global reach and control over world trade, and hence with the ability to help structure the new global political and economic systems and to maintain order. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  23. The Mysterious Theory • All of these theories mainly formulate totality of relationship between war, society, economic, power, evolution and peace. • Non of these theories tackled relationship between powerful and powerless; violated reaction from below to the war maker via dominant power from above. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  24. Global War • Global war can not explain war sphere properly unless one formulates war in relation to Domination policy—hard power is routed in soft power. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  25. War, economy, power and the West • All major wars in 20th century and beginning of 21st century either started by the West or promoted and motivated by the West. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  26. Since the end of the Cold War, the United States has dominated the global arms market. In 1996, the value of world arms agreements was $31.8 billion. The US had the largest share, with agreements worth nearly $11.3 billion, or 35.5 percent of the total. Arm Market Dominated by the West Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  27. Developing countries are the victim of arms market of the West • Developing world nations continue to provide the largest customer base for arms transfer agreements and arms deliveries. In 1996, 61 percent of all arms sales were to developing nations. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  28. Symbolic Violence: Soft power-Globalization from above and Muted Group Reaction • Symbolic violence is about violence without violence or one might describe it as a projective process of a war without war. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  29. Structural and Symbolic Violence • Bourdiew includes the symbolic “censored” and euphemized but socially recognized violence embedded in everyday, hegemonic practice in ‘disguised and transfigured form a totalizing vision partially challenged by Comaroff (1985) insists that symbolic violence is important in the structuring and ordering of relations of domination and subordination, though critics caution that state regimes everywhere justify their own violence as a reaction to the (symbolic) violence implicit in opposition itself. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  30. International Relations and Islamophobia • One can discuss Islamophobic policy as an International Relations System which demonizes Muslims all over the world alongside Muslim Countries as a whole. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  31. 6. Concept of Islamophobia • Islamophobia defined as ‘unfounded hostility towards Islam. It refers also to the practical consequences of such hostility in unfair discrimination against Muslim individuals and communities and to the exclusion of Muslims from mainstream political and social affairs…’ (The Runnymede Trust, 1997: 4). Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  32. Islamophobia is about encoding the community of faith—Muslims and Islam by violence and images of hate, which will encoded by hatred and marginalization

  33. Islamophbia is a resocialization process • Islamophobia is to be desocialized away from one’s own culture and to be resocialized into another culture. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  34. Dimensions of Islamophobia • Islamophobia can be discussed in the arena of politics, culture and economic power in relation to a particular agenda, which relies on an ‘ideological worldview’. This phobic picture of faith can be given to all religions and faiths—today Islam, tomorrow Christianity, Judaism and Buddhism. Religio-phobic policy potentially can be a political force for clash of civilizations, marginalization of ‘other’ civilizations and domination of a mono-centric culture and civilization overwhelming ‘others’. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  35. Islamophobia and Globalization • One can cultivate the concept of Islamophobia and globalization in two different environments namely ‘monocentrism’ which is based on ‘hegemonic ideology’ and ‘polycentrism’ which respect all ‘cultural boundaries’ and historical heritage of different civilization based on ‘toleration of all ideologies’. Polycentrism as a political policy or as an ‘ideological world view’ is a ‘pluralistic discourse’ which believe on the ‘balance of the earth’ not based on domination of ‘mono-power’ (Albrow, 1996), but, by giving a position and opportunity to all cultures and civilization according to their indigenous potential and cultural capacity. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  36. CNN TV what's onshow transcriptsCNN Headline NewsCNN InternationalEDITIONS CNN.com AsiaCNN.com Europeset your editionChina links Islamic separatists to terrorism Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  37. What's on CNN Islamic terrorists slaughter Algerian villagers Government vows fierce reprisal Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  38. COMPLETE COVERAGE | FRONT LINES | AMERICA AT HOME | INTERACTIVES • Philippines seeking U.S. aid against Islamic fighters • November 20, 2001 Posted: 12:57 PM EST (1757 GMT) • U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld escorts Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo into the Pentagon on Tuesday.   Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  39. Australia outlaws Islamic groups Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003 Australia has added six overseas Islamic groups to its list of banned terrorist organisations.

  40. Violent image of Islam Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  41. Symbolic presentation of Muslim Women Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  42. Islamophobic picture of Muslim Women Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  43. Old Fashion and violated Oriental Man Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  44. Face of Hate: Even in Prayer Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  45. Associating 9/11 with Islam Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  46. Agenda for Islamophobia project • Domination of Americanism or Mono-centrism • Demonization of self-confidence among Muslim to merge in American global camp • Legitimization of war if it became necessary, which explain as class of Civilizations • Fundamental segregation between Westerners and Muslims all over the World Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  47. Global Ideology and World Domination • Globally speaking, American Exceptionalism can be seen as serious ideological challenge for empowerment of religion in social, political and even individual values. • American Exceptionalism has effect whole political system, and cultural society of the United States as well as world society. • American Exceptionalism taking place in two different orientations: Exclusion and Inclusion. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  48. American Exceptionalism ended by hegemony and domination Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  49. American Exceptionality • The Myth of Uniqueness of American Ideology: Articulation upon liberal democracy • Exceptionality of American Political System • The Vitality of American Culture • This is an ideology which believes power is might and right, the more power you have the more right you get. Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003

  50. World domination relies more on soft and micro power Globalizations, Ideological Democracy and Islamophobia, IHRC, 30th of July 2003