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The Ideological War

The Ideological War

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The Ideological War

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  1. The Ideological War

  2. The Four Freedoms (1941)

  3. War and the American State • Mass mobilization • Unemployment plummets • Massive expansion of govt • Founding of military-industrial complex

  4. Trouble Brewing • Japan invades China (1931) • Mussolini invades Ethiopia (1935) • League of Nations powerless • Fascist Francisco Franco leads rebellion against democratic govt in Spain

  5. Revanchism • French for “revenge” • Hitler wants to reunite Germanic peoples, annexes Austria • Flouts Treaty of Versailles by pursuing massive rearmament • Supports Mussolini and Franco • UK and France want to avoid war, follow policy of “appeasement” toward Hitler • Takes over Czechoslovakia (1938-9)

  6. Reluctance • Americans believed WWI was mistake • Many companies did business with Germany and Japan • Some Italian and German-Americans supported fascists • Irish-Americans still hated Britain

  7. 1939 I sit in one of the divesOn Fifty-second StreetUncertain and afraidAs the clever hopes expireOf a low dishonest decade: Waves of anger and fear Circulate over the brightAnd darkened lands of the earth, Obsessing our private lives;The unmentionable odour of death Offends the September night. W.H. Auden

  8. Last Straw • Hitler invades Poland (1939) • UK, France declare war • Nazis overrun Scandinavia, Belgium, Netherlands • Occupy Paris by 1940 • Germany, Italy, Japan join forces (the Axis)

  9. Arc de Capitulation • “Vichy” govt collaborates with Nazis in France • UK stands alone • Battle of Britain • Winston Churchill • Conservative Prime Minister

  10. Pearl Harbor • Japan attacks US base in Hawaii • Dec 7, 1941: “a day that will live in infamy” • Destroys US battleships and kills 2000 Americans • FDR declares war • Germany declares war on us next day

  11. Two Theatres • Most American troops in Pacific • Need to reverse Japanese advance • Japan took Philippines, Guam, etc. • US and UK invade North Africa to fight Germans and Italians

  12. The Battle for Europe • D-Day (6/6/1944) – huge invasion of France • 200k American, British, Canadian troops land on beaches of Normandy • 1 million follow • Biggest land-sea operation in history • Paris liberated by August

  13. The War at Home • Govt workers quadruple to 4 million • High taxes to support war • Govt coordinates war production • Car plants converted to making tanks, planes

  14. Rosie the Riveter • 15 million men in military • Women = 1/3 of workforce • Some wanted to stay working after war • But men saw this as temporary

  15. War for Freedom? • Japanese-Americans forced into internment camps

  16. Zoot Suit Riots (1943)

  17. A. Philip Randolph

  18. Civil Rights • Labor leader Randolph plans March on Washington (1941) to protest discrimination in war industries, military • FDR issues executive order • Fair Employment Practices Commission • 1st federal agency since Reconstruction to seek equal opportunity for African Americans

  19. Malmedy Massacre, 1944

  20. Endgame • Allies setback at Battle of the Bulge (late 1944) • Bloodiest battle for US • Allies press advantage in 1945 • Soviet and Polish troops capture Berlin and Germany surrenders • “V-E Day” – 5/8/45

  21. Defeating Japan • US retakes Philippines and other islands (1945) • Firebombs Japanese cities and cuts off imports with submarines • Shocks world by dropping two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki (8/6/45 and 8/9/45)

  22. Yalta Conference, February 1945: Churchill, FDR, Stalin

  23. Potsdam Conference, July 1945: Churchill, Truman, and Stalin