The Development of the English Vocabulary 09052008 김민형
Contents • 2.1 The Indo-European Language Family • 2.2 A Historical Overview of the English Vocabulary • 2.2.1 Old English(450~1150) • 2.2.2 Middle English(1150~1500) • 2.2.3 Modern English(1500~up to now) • 2.3 Growth of Present-day English Vocabulary • 2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development
2.1 The Indo-European Language Family • It is a group which has similarities in basic word stock and grammar. • Europe, the Near East, and India • The language of each group grew and developed along different lines. Each group can’t communicate with their language.
2.1 The Indo-European Language Family • The similarity bears a more or less direct relationship to their geographical distribution.
2.1 The Indo-European Language Family • All these languages have some influence on English, because each has lent words into the English vocabulary.
2.2 A historical Overview of the English Vocabulary • As a result Celtic made only a small contribution to the English vocabulary. ex) It was driven from Celtic • Crag (험준한 바위), bin(통,버리다) • A number of place name : Avon, Kent, London, Themes.
2.2.1 Old English(450-1150) • The introduction of Christianity brought many new ideas and customs and also many religious terms • abbot(수도원장) • candle(양초), • altar(제단), • amen(아멘), • apostle(사도,주창자)
2.2.1 Old English(450-1150) • However, users of Old English didn’t borrow as heavily from Latin or other languages in this period. -> They changed meaning of native words or created new words by combining two native words.
2.2.1 Old English(450-1150) • 6. Many Scandinavian words came into the English language. • However, they were everyday words. • Scandinavian invaders were Germanic people like the Anglo-Saxons, Many words were exactly alike. - ex) father,husband,house,life,man,mother
2.2.1 Old English(450-1150) • Therefore, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs had complex endings or vowel changes, or both, which differ greatly from the language that we use today. • Old English is inflectional and complex language.
In 1066, Norman Conquest • 1. Norman Conquest started a continual flow of French words into English. • Although theEnglish was a*despised language, Norman French became the polite speech.
By the end of 11th century • 2. All of the people who held political or social power and many of those in powerful church positions were of Norman French origin.
By the end of 11th century • Therefore, people spoke,wrote, and read in Frenchcould educate their children taught them in French; and any young man who sought to earn his living as a scribe learned Latin or French because there was no market for such service in English.
By the end of 13th Century • 3. Englishgradually came back into the schools, the law courts, and government and regained social status. • Chaucer and Wycliffestablished the foundation of middle English.
2.2.2 Middle English(1150-1500) • From 1250 to 1500, about 9000 words of French origin poured into English. 75% of them are still in use today. We can find word relating to every aspect of human society. Ex) State,power,prince,duck,judge,court, crime..
2.2.2 Middle English(1150-1500) • Middle English retained(maintained) much fewer inflections. • Ending of nouns and adjectives marking distinction of number • case and often of genderlost their distinctive form. (difference between Old and Middle English)
2.2.2 Middle English(1150-1500) • The same is true of the verb. • Old English is said to be a language of full endings, Middle English is one of leveled endings.
2.2.3 Modern English(1500~ up to now) • Modern English began with the establishment of printing in England.
Renaissance • Latin and Greek were recognized as the languages of the Western world’s great literary heritage and of great scholarship • Translators and scholars borrowed heavily from the Latin vocabulary of their source materials. Many Latin words became part of English vocabulary.
In the 17thcentury • With the growth of colonization, British tentacles began stretching out to every corner of the globe, thus enabling English to absorb words from all major languages of the world.
After World War 2 • Thousands and thousands of new words have been created to express new ideas, inventions, and scientific achievements. • New words are multiplied in all walks of life.
2.2.3 Modern English(1500~ up to now) • In modern English, word endings were mostly lost with just a few exceptions. • It can be concluded that English has evolved froma synthetic language(Old English)tothe present analytic language.
2.2.3 Modern English(1500~ up to now) • Example
2.3 Growth of Present-dayEnglish Vocabulary • New words are being invented or introduced every day to express new things and new changes in society and they become part of the English vocabulary.
2.3 Growth of Present-dayEnglish Vocabulary • Main Sources of new words • Rapid growth of science and technology • Social, economic, and political change • The influence of other cultures and language
2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development • Modern English vocabulary develops through threechannels • Creation : to create new word by using root, affixes and other elements. • Semantic change : An old form which takes on a new meaning to meet the new need. This doesn't increase the number of word forms but create many more new usage of new words
2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development • 3. Borrowing : Borrowed words constitute merely 70% of all new words (by Thomas Pyles and John Algeo) • English, French Latin, Greek and Scandinavian were major contributors.
2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development • Reviving outdated words also contributes to the growth of English vocabulary. In 13th century Replace the word ‘Loan’
2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development All be traced back to much earlier times in British English
2.4 Modes of Vocabulary Development • Also, old words falling out of use. • In the epic Beowulf, there were more than 37 words used to express ‘prince’. But most of them are no longer in use. Because we don’t have the same need for the words as our forefather did in their time.