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TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914

TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914

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TACTICS OF RULE The New Imperialism 1870-1914

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  1. TACTICS OF RULEThe New Imperialism 1870-1914 SUPERQUIZ Section III - 13 questions (32.5%) Part 1

  2. New imperialism • Europeans reshaped their empires during the late 19th century • Prior to the _______s, Europeans used ____________ expansionism to gain territories for their empires • ________________ campaigns of conquest and occupation replaced the old system in Asia and Africa • The term “_________________________” distinguishes this brand of imperialism from prior versions • New imperialism was founded upon the same ideological tenets as the imperialism of the mid 19th century • The liberal _______________ mission appeared during the beginning of new imperialism • The system of expansion soon lost touch with its philosophical roots piecemeal 1870 Systematic NEW IMPERIALISM civilizing

  3. Four characteristics of new imperialism: • European nations officially adopted imperialism for the first time in the 19th century • Expansionist __________ replaced empires governed primarily by _________ • European governments had previously sponsored imperialism _________it had already occurred • The state replaced _____________________& _________________as the holder of imperial initiative • New nations entered the world of imperialism • _____________,_________, and _____________entered into the European arena • The ________________________and __________also emerged as global powers • ______________’s longstanding superiority in global sovereignty started to fade • The more competitive environment changed the political strategies of nations engaging in imperialism • Nations sought explicit ____________________________________and _________________________________ instead of informal influence states traders AFTER Missionaries merchants Germany Italy Belgium United States Japan Britain political conquest territorial occupation

  4. New Imperialism’s Mission • New imperialism defined its own ideological mission • This brand of expansion created an unbreachable ________between imperialists and colonial subjects • _______________ ideas of a liberal empire were gradually abandoned • Europeans retreated from the ______________ goals of the early and mid 19th century • This imperialism • abandoned ____________ guidelines • saw Europe rise to the ___________ of its global power GAP universalist civilizing moral apex

  5. Causes of the New Imperialism:Multiple factors • New imperialism materialized from multiple factors • Technology • Nationalism • Economics • Politics • Culture • Significant changes in the second half of the 19th century allowed the system of expansion to come into being • Most of these changes occurred in ___________ EUROPE

  6. Technology • By the late 19th century, Europeans had access to technologies that redefined imperialism • Steamships, industrial weaponry, quinine, and gunboats all played a role in prior European expansion • Gunboats: armed steamboats • 2 examples of the power of technology • The opening of China and • the conquest of Burma • The second industrial revolution of the late 19th century increased the power of technology • The speed, vigor, and extent of conquests increased as a result • Ironclad warships were equipped with steam turbines • These boats spread the superior weaponry of Europe across the world • The ____________ simplified military mobilization logistics • ____________ eased the construction of roads • Modern _____________ reduced the danger of living in the tropics telegraph Dynamite medicine

  7. Nationalism… incentives BROADEST • Created new _________________within imperial powers to conquer the world • term must be understood in the ______________sense • developed in new ways • During the early 19th century, nationalism encompassed _______________and ________________ ideas • Assoc. w/ liberal and democratic _________ • Within the era of new imperialism, nationalism shifted to an _______________and _____________version • Assoc. w/ the mass politics of the __________ • included emotional appeals to ____________and_________ • It challenged the liberal policies of the mid 19th century • The possibilities of societal _____________ and the __________ individual trumped these liberal policies • Imperial domination became the marker of ___________ and a sign of national _____________ romantic liberal LEFT aggressive exclusive RIGHT community history progress rational prestige vigor

  8. NATIONALISM • contributed to the rise of a new economic and political order of nation states • Germany experienced a national _____________ that transformed it into one of the most formidable European powers • The rise of ______________and the appearance of the ________________and _________ as industrial giants rearranged the global balance of power • These events affected the stakes of empire unification Germany United States Japan

  9. NATIONALISM British • The __________ experienced a substantial challenge to their global sovereignty • They had not experienced such an obstacle since the late 18th century • __________ was put on the back burner as a third-rate power • Britain and France had to go on the political and economic defensive • hoped that an expansive __________ would compensate for the loss of political and economic _________________ • Germany, the United States, and Japan responded by creating their own _____________________ France empire dominance colonial empires

  10. Economics • Imperial nations viewed colonies as • markets for industrial goods • sources for raw materials and cash crops • investment grounds for excess capital • The rise of ________ and the ______________as major industrial powers upset the previous economic balance • By 1890, both the U.S. and Germany exceeded British __________&___________production • Germany outsold Britain in • Latin America, • the Ottoman Empire, and • China Germany United States iron steel

  11. ECONOMICS depression • An industrial economic ____________ existed from _______ through the ______s • The idea that colonial markets could serve as ___________ against the vacillations present in global commerce caught on • Western nations abandoned ____________ policies in the _____s and _____s • __________________policies gained strength • These strategies advocated • trade ______________in the domestic market and • the establishment of colonies as protected economic spheres 1873 1890 buffers free trade 1880 1890 mercantilist barriers

  12. ECONOMICS capitalism • A new wave of industrial ____________ ushered in fears of _____________ in the domestic market • Industrial overproduction resulted • Europeans viewed empire as an outlet for capital and good surpluses saturation

  13. Economic rationales alone do not account for new imperialism benefits costs • Governments often pursued imperialism when economic ________ outweighed economic _______ • Colonies did serve as great markets for European industrial goods in the late 19th century • In 1890,INDIA served as the source of _______of British industrial goods and _________of British investment capital • European nations traded far more with __________________than with their own colonies • Britain traded more with ________________and the _______ than with its ___________ or _____________ colonies • _______________ was the largest overseas investor and trader in the era of new imperialism • The most industrialized and economically powerful nations did not always take the lead in imperialist expansion • _____________ accumulated the world’s second largest empire, but • ___________ far outpaced France as an industrial producer 1/3 1/4 Independent countries Latin America U.S. African Asian BRITAIN France Germany

  14. Politics • The primacy of nation-states brought ________ and ______ ambitions to the forefront • Imperialist actions followed political motives just as much as economic motives • Seizing territorial expanses preempted other nation-states’ empires • ______________sought to build a strong German _________ to combat Britain’s global power • Wilhelm II ruled Germany from _____to______ • Britain depended on its naval dominance in • North Africa, • the Ottoman Empire, • and China • Italy sought a colonial empire in East and North ____________ to achieve status as a great global power territorial strategic navy Kaiser Wilhelm II 1888 1918 Africa

  15. Culture state building • Nation-states in the late 19th century utilized imperialism to assist the process of __________________ • Imperialism fully unified a country’s citizenry • Loyalties shifted from the local community to the ___________community • This process initially met resistance • The loss of _______________was a particularly hard idea to accept • National leaders enticed citizens with ideas of ________ • Empire represented the ___________ property of the nation • In theory, empire transcended __________________ • IN THEORY: Peasants and workers along with upper class elite were _______________ to colonial subjects • In reality, _________ • Empire also served as • the nation’s ________________ that contrasted with • the weak _________________colonies • Imperialism and imperial ___________ united nation-states • Racehierarchies replaced hierarchies of ___________ national regional identity empire symbolic social class superior NOPE! masculinity effeminate racism class

  16. Proud Brits! • British troops attacked and looted the _______ capital of _________ in __________ • This capital is currently located in southern _____________ • This expedition responded to the ambush of a British military force sent in 1896 to force ______________________ from the Edo king • Photograph shows British officers surrounded by treasure including • Benin bronzes • seized from the royal compound • Stolen objects ended up in ___________and_________ art museums EDO BENIN 1897 Nigeria trade concessions American European

  17. 3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80) • 1. What are four features of “new imperialism”? • -European nations adopted imperialism as an official policy • -A new group of nations began to imperialize • -Nations sought explicit territorial occupation and political conquest • -Europeans began to see a clear, gap between them and the colonized people, no longer seeking to “civilize” rather just to control.

  18. 3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80) • 2. What five new nations emerged as imperialist powers in the “new imperialism” period? • -Germany • -Belgium • -Italy • -US • -Japan

  19. 3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80) • 3. What three technologies helped spread European influence abroad in the 20th century? • -steamships • -industrial weaponry • -quinine to treat malaria

  20. 3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80) • 4. What forces were at play with the new nationalism and imperialist struggle? • -economic factors • -political motives • -cultural incentives

  21. The Scramble for Africa • Chambers, et al. (Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore K.Rabb, IsserWoloch, and Lisa Tiersten) consider the scramble for Africa to be the most remarkable chapter of the expansion of Europe in the late 19th century • _______ European states split up Africa from _____to_____ • Only • Abyssinia (ETHIOPIA) • Liberia remained independent Seven 1880 1912

  22. The starting line: The Berlin Conference • German Prime Minister _____________ presided over the Berlin Conference • lasted from _____ to ______ • originally summoned to settle control of the _______ River between • the Belgians • the Portuguese Otto von Bismarck 1884 1885 Congo

  23. ` The Berlin Conference Berlin Conference • The _____________ came to establish the ground rules for European colonization of ____________ • Many European governments disliked the haphazard settlement of African territory seen up through the mid-1880s Africa Bismarck

  24. The Berlin Conference: a turning point in European diplomacy • Africa endured bloodshed and suffering even as Europeans settled their continental disputes • ___________ diplomatic shrewdness contributed to European cooperation at the Berlin Conference • The bulk of African territories went to _________and __________ to compensate for their loss of _____________ in Europe • This ceding of territories also refueled the _____________________________________ • ____________ foreign policy thus had a major impact on the scramble for Africa, even though the country held few African colonies • Bismarck’s Britain France dominance Franco-British imperial rivalry Germany’s

  25. Lines of European influence in Africa had been long drawn • The political discussion served to ratify the principle that European __________________ • ensured the claim to the land beyond the coast • if authority could be established • The Berlin Conference did legitimize some new claims in central Africa • _________and_____________gainedcontrol of parts of central Africa • The discussion primarily extended European control from existing coastal settlements into Africa’s interior coastal settlement Belgium Leopold II

  26. The Berlin Conference centralized power in Africa, a traditional decentralized political landscape • Africans experienced a shift in political lines that redrew __________ and __________groups • Some new European colonies encompassed more than _________ African political units • Artificial implementation of the “_________” designation reconfigured African ethnic and cultural ____________ • Many modern-day tribes are the result of the Berlin Conference • Christian missionaries did attempt to _____________ related language dialects • These attempts strengthen cultural bonds between otherwise disparate groups polities ethnic 300 tribe identities standardize

  27. Extended European abolition of slavery and the slave trade to Africa David Livingstone • Explorers such as _____________________had unsuccessfully campaigned against the slave trade in East Africa in the mid 19th century • Europeans enforced abolitionism in their new role as formal _____________ • Abolitionism stemmed from both • humanitarian purposes • as a politically expedient pretense for conquest • African slavery still existed underground until the early 20th century • ______________ replaced slavery • European colonizers even utilized this forced labor themselves colonizers Forced labor

  28. The wars of conquest 1880s • The conquest of Africa came only through bloody wars of conquest that lasted from the _______s to the first decade of the 20th century • Europeans enjoyed several advantages during these armed conflicts • Coastal African footholds and longstanding commercial connections provided a steady stream of ___________and local __________ of operations • Divisions between local communities also left African communities open for European Expansion • The British used the subdued _________ against the _____________overlords • The British then conquered the Nupe soon after supplies bases Nupe Fulani

  29. Europeans’ enormous technological advantage, especially in weaponry • The second ______________________magnified the already existing arms gap between Europeans and Africans • Africans acquired ______ in the late 19th century • By this time, Europeans had rapid-firing ___________________and_________________ • Breechloaders were also called ___________ rifles • Europeans tested most of the weaponry used in _________________during the colonial warfare of the late 19th century industrial revolution rifles breechloaders machine guns repeating World War I

  30. The Battle of Omdurman Omdurman 1898 • The Battle of ________________ • in __________ • exemplifies the arms _______ • This ________skirmish saw Anglo-Egyptian forces use • hand-driven _____________machine guns and • field artillery • Only ________Anglo-Egyptians died, with another ________ wounded • In stark contrast, ___________ Sudanese soldiers died, with another _________ wounded gap Sudan Gatling 49 382 11,000 16,000

  31. African Resistance • If Africans gained equal firearm technology, they normally resisted European invasions • Islamic _________ ruler ___________in French West Africa fended off French troops from the mid _____s to the late ____s • French West Africa occupied modern-day __________________________________________________ • ______________________was the most critical component of European conquest of Africa Malinke SamoriTouré 1880 1890 Mali, Guinea, Senegal, and the Ivory Coast Advanced weaponry

  32. Dark Horses: New imperial nations • European nations besides Britain and France created substantial African empires • _____________entered as a major African power following the Berlin Conference • ______________established his claims in the Congo at the political roundtable • European powers did extract ____________and_________ rights in the region • Belgian domination of the __________________took over _____years • This area of land is now known as the __________________________________ • The Congo Free State is ______times larger than Belgium BELGIUM King Leopold II Free trading shipping Congo Free State 10 Democratic Republic of the Congo 76

  33. The dark horses: New imperial nations GERMANY • ___________ also inserted itself into the scramble for Africa • __________________claimed a few African _____________ for Germany during the Berlin Conference • These 4 areas were the most active areas for German missionaries and Traders: • South West Africa (NAMIBIA) • East Africa (TANZANIA) • Cameroon, and • Togoland (TOGO) Otto von Bismarck protectorates

  34. German Belligerence: Morocco Wilhelm II • The ascension of _______________ to power in ________forced _____________ from power • Germany initiated an aggressive ____________________ • strategies made Germany an active threat to both imperial • Britain • France • The _________________of _____ - ______ erupted from German protests of the ___________________ power split in the region • Germany wanted a sphere of influence in ______________ 1888 Bismarck Foreign policy Moroccan Crisis 1905 1906 Franco-Spanish Morocco

  35. German Belligerence: Agadir 1911 AGADIR • The __________Incident of _________developed from a German __________arriving in the port of Agadirin ____________ • Wilhelm II sent this boat to intimidate the ______ • Both the ____________________and the ____________________had _____________ resolutions • France retained effective control of Morocco through both incidents • These incidents highlight the _____________ of the post-Bismarckian government inGermany gunboat Morocco French Moroccan Crisis Agadir Incident diplomatic belligerence

  36. The Agadir Incident: 1911

  37. Portugal • The Portuguese expanded their holdings on Africa’s _____and__________coasts • West African coasts: _____________________ • East Africa coast: _______________________ • These led to prolonged wars of resistance, especially in the _____________ Valley west southeast Angola Mozambique Zambezi

  38. Italy humiliation • Italy experienced ________________from its colonization of Africa • The new country sought to increase its international standing by taking territory in _______ Africa (HORN OF AFRICA) • in ________, the Italians seized • Eritrea • Somaliland (Somalia) • in _______,King _________________Abyssinian troops resisted Italian encroachments • at the Battle of _____________ • _____________-man army armed with • European breechloaders, • field artillery, and • a few machine guns • Italy did successfully establish a protectorate in ____________ Libya in __________ east 1889 1896 Menelik II’s Adowa 100,000 TRIPOLI, 1912

  39. The has-been’s resurgence: France French British • ________and___________expansion in Africa overshadowed all other European expansion • France dominated _______Africa and ________ Africa • The British : French Empire as a mere ________________ • France expanded in every direction from __________ • To the east, France eliminated British and Italian influence • The growing indebtedness of rulers served as the excuse for the declaration of ___________ as a French protectorate in 1881 • To the west, France moved on _____________ • ______ gained a small realm of control within the country • The French successfully kept the ___________ out of Morocco • By _______, the French established the sub-Saharan territory of __________________________ West North sandbox Algeria Tunisia Morocco Spain Germans 1895 French West Africa

  40. The has-been’s resurgence: France Somaliland • The French claimed part of __________ in eastern Africa • In 1896, France conquered _________________ • A __________ plantation economy thrived based on forced labor of the indigenous peoples • France established the ________________in central Africa in __________ • This area of land is currently known as the _____________________ • The 1900 invasion of the region of Lake _______ united French interests in North Africa and West Africa with central African land holdings • Chad and French Congo combined in _________ to form __________________________________ Madagascar sugar French Congo 1897 Republic of the Congo (NOT the DRC) Chad 1911 French Equatorial Africa

  41. The long-time favorite: Britain • British imperialists had long envisioned a railway that connected __________to______ • To span the British African Empire • _____________________announced plans for a ___________and ___________________from Cairo to Cape Town in ________ • Caricatures appeared of this South African ___________ magnate following his announcement Cape Town Cairo Cecil John Rhodes railroad telegraph line 1892 mining

  42. The long-time favorite: Britain • The British moved to consolidate their hold on ________&______ in the 1880s • The French lost joint control of _______in the 1870s and 1880s • France and Britain had previously shared ______________ control over Egypt • The French had financed the construction of the ____________ • Egypt became a British protectorate in ________ Egypt Sudan Egypt financial Suez Canal 1882

  43. British used Egypt as a base to expand into Turco-Egyptian-controlled Sudan MAHDIST • The suppressed millenarian jihadist _____________state then fought against the British • This power had previously tried to overthrow Egyptian rule during the __________ • Armies of the Mahdi attacked ___________ in _______ • MAHDI means ____________________ • Khartoum served as the Egyptian capital of ______________ • A _______-month siege followed • General ____________________________________Anglo-Egyptian troops faced annihilation • The general gained his nickname from his previous role in suppressing the ________________Rebellion • The Mahdi established an ________________ state centered at nearby ___________________ • The British launched a new campaign to retake Sudan in _____ • In ______, Lord _____________ led the famed battle at Omdurman 1880s 1885 Khartoum The Guided One Sudan 10 Charles “Chinese” Gordon Taiping Islamic Omdurman 1896 1898 Kitchener

  44. Charles “Chinese” Gordon

  45. Khartoum: Gordon’s last stand

  46. Kitchener avenges Gordon’s death

  47. BRITISH EAST AFRICA and BUGANDA • British Sudanese expansion linked Egypt with British colonies in southeast Africa: • ____________________in 1888 • now known as ________________ • ___________ became a British colony in 1894 • Now known as _____________ British East Africa Kenya Buganda Uganda