American Imperialism1870-1914 US History
Essential Questions: • 1. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how to run their governments? • 2. Does the United States have the right to tell other countries how their people SHOULD live? • 3. Does the US have the right to go into foreign lands to get resources we need?
If you were going to invade any country in the world- where would you invade and for what purpose?
I. What is imperialism? a. the policy by which stronger countries extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker countries b. Can be DIRECT or INDIRECT
II. Causes of American Imperialism • a. competition with European imperialist countries • b. ideas of cultural and racial superiority • c. for strategic military locations • d. To spread Christianity and Western Civilization • e. For natural resources and to open new markets to sell American products
III. US acquires new lands… a. Alaska- how? b. Hawaii- how?
IV. Spanish American War 1898-1901 a. Spain owned Cuba, Phillipines, Puerto Rico, and lots of small islands in the Pacific Ocean b. Cuba wanted Independence from Spain c. US decides to help Cuba overthrow Spanish government but needed an excuse to go to war d. U.S.S. Maine blows up in Havana’s harbor, yellow journalists sensationalize reports of Spain’s mistreatment of Cuban nationalists
e. Rough Riders 1. Theodore Roosevelt emerges as a war hero 2. Rough Riders- volunteer cavalry unit
F. Outcome of the Spanish-American War • US wins
G. US Acquires New Territory from the Spanish-American War 1. US gains Guam, Puerto Rico, Phillipines, Samoa, Wake Island, Christmas Island, among many others 2. US still controls Cuba indirectly although they are technically “free” a. US retains the right to intervene in Cuba if our business interests are threatened b. US helps draft Cuban Constitution 3. US is officially an EMPIRE now!
3. Phillipines rebel against US presence a. stage three year guerilla war b. led by Emilio Aguinaldo
V. US wants in on China! • US wants to sell China products • Senator John Hay- Open Door policy • Chinese mad- Boxer rebellion
VI. Theodore Roosevelt as Leader a. When TR becomes president in 1901, he believes in imperialism b. Wants US to be seen as a tough dude c. “Walk softly and carry a big stick”
d. Teddy wants a canal • But how was he going to get it? 1. Panama wanted to separate from Colombia 2. US helps Panama overthrow Colombian government in exchange for the canal
Great White Fleet a. Symbolic show of American power b. Navy=a country’s strength 1. based on Alfred T. Mahan’s book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 2. Strong navy= strong nation
Monroe Doctrine • Roosevelt Corollary- asserts US power to intervene in Latin America • “Sphere of influence” • “Hemispheric Hegemony”
US Interventions in Latin America- 1890-TODAY • Argentina 1890 TroopsBuenos Aires interests protected • Chile1891 TroopsMarines clash with nationalist rebels • Haiti1891Troops Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated • Nicaragua1894Troops Month-long occupation of Bluefields • Panama1895 Naval, troops Marines land in Colombian province • Nicaragua1896 TroopsMarines land in port of Corinto • Cuba1898-Naval, troops Seized from Spain, U.S. still holds Navy base at Guantanamo • Puerto Rico1898-Naval, troops Seized from Spain, occupation continues • Nicaragua1898TroopsMarines land at port of San Juan del Sur • Nicaragua1899TroopsMarines land at port of Bluefields • Honduras1903TroopsMarines intervene in revolution • Dominican Republic1903-04TroopsU.S. interests protected in Revolution • Cuba1906-09TroopsMarines land in democratic election • Nicaragua1907Troops"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up • Honduras1907TroopsMarines land during war with Nicaragua • Panama1908TroopsMarines intervene in election
Nicaragua1910TroopsMarines land in Bluefields and Corinto • Honduras1911TroopsU.S. interests protected in civil war • Cuba1912TroopsU.S. interests protected in Havana • Panama1912TroopsMarines land during heated election • Honduras1912TroopsMarines protect U.S. economic interests • Nicaragua1912-33Troops, bombing20-year occupation, fought guerrillas • Mexico1913NavalAmericans evacuated during revolution • Dominican Republic1914NavalFight with rebels over Santo Domingo • Mexico1914-18Naval, troopsSeries of interventions against nationalists • Haiti1914-34Troops, bombing19-year occupation after revolts • Dominican Republic1916-24Troops8-year Marine occupation • Cuba1917-33TroopsMilitary occupation, economic protectorate • Panama1918-20Troops"Police duty" during unrest after elections • Honduras1919TroopsMarines land during election campaign • Guatemala1920Troops2-week intervention against unionists
Costa Rica1921Troops • Panama1921Troops • Honduras1924-25TroopsLanded twice during election strife • Panama1925TroopsMarines suppress general strike • El Salvador1932NavalWarships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt • Uruguay1947Nuclear threatBombers deployed as show of strength • Puerto Rico1950Command operationIndependence rebellion crushed in Ponce • Guatemala1954-?Command operation, bombing, nuclear threatCIA directs exile invasion and coup d'Etat after newly elected government nationalizes unused U.S.'s United Fruit Company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua; long-term result: 200,000 murdered • Panama1958TroopsFlag protests erupt into confrontation • Cuba1961Command operationCIA-directed exile invasion fails • Cuba1962Nuclear threat, navalBlockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union • Panama1964TroopsPanamanians shot for urging canal's return • Dominican Republic1965-66Troops, bombingMarines land during election campaign • Guatemala1966-67Command operationGreen Berets intervene against rebels • Chile1973Command operationCIA-backed coup ousts democratically elected Marxist president
El Salvador1981-92Command operation, troopsAdvisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash; long-term result: 75,000 murdered and destruction of popular movementNicaragua1981-90Command operation, navalCIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution; result: 50,000 murderedHonduras1982-90TroopsManeuvers help build bases near bordersGrenada1983-84Troops, bombingInvasion four years after revolutionBolivia1987TroopsArmy assists raids on cocaine regionPanama1989Troops, bombingNationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killedHaiti1994-95Troops, navalBlockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coupVenezuela2002Command operationFailed coup attempt to remove left-populist president Hugo ChavezHaiti2004-TroopsRemoval of democratically elected President Aristide; troops occupy country
Reflection: • Was American imperialism necessary for the US to become a rich and powerful nation? Why or why not?