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The Kite Runner: The history and politics of Afghanistan PowerPoint Presentation
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The Kite Runner: The history and politics of Afghanistan

The Kite Runner: The history and politics of Afghanistan

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The Kite Runner: The history and politics of Afghanistan

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  1. The Kite Runner: The history and politics of Afghanistan

  2. Historical Afghanistan • Afghanistan originally consisted of tribes dominated by various empires throughout history. • It emerged as a nation when Pashtun tribes developed an alliance under Ahmad Shah Durani.

  3. Afghan tribal empire

  4. Anglo-Afghan Wars • 1838-1842 Britain sets up a puppet government in Afghanistan to prevent Russian influence from spreading. Afghans protested and revolted; thousands of British and Indian troops were killed, leading to British withdrawal. • 1978 British troops returned to major cities in Afghanistan due to fears of Russian influence and power.

  5. Afghanistan and Pakistan • 1993-British drew border between Afghanistan and British India. It split the Pashtun population between Afghanistan and present-day Pakistan. Afghanistan became a buffer state between British India and the Rusian Empire.

  6. Pashtuns divided but still tribal loyalities

  7. Pashtuns and Hazara

  8. Reign of King Zahir Shah • Ruled 1933-1973. King Zahir Shah was finally able to rid Afghanistan of British influence and began modernizing many aspects of Afghanistan, including government (democratic reforms), education (establishment of universities), and women’s rights.

  9. Reign of Daoud Khan • Daoud Khan took over in a bloodless coup while the king was in Italy. He ended the monarchy and established a republic. With democratic reforms came opposition and a communist party (PDPA). In 1970-71, after the government was ineffective in responding to a drought, Daoud Kahn was assassinated in a coup by the PDPA.

  10. Soviet Invasion • Soviets first begin by supplying the new communist government with advisors and military equipment. When resistance breaks out, they complete a full-scale military invasion. Russia wants Afghanistan as a buffer state against Iran, Pakistan, China, and United States all ideological enemies (Muslim/Democratic). It also wants access to warm water ports.

  11. Soviet Invasion unsucessful

  12. Afghan Resistance • Afghan refugees pour into Pakistan. Tribal groups(mujahedin) organize a resistance against the Soviets. US, Iran, Saudi Arabia and China all fund the mujahedin. The war completely destroys many villages, irrigation systems, the economy and political system of Afghanistan, but the mujahedin force Soviet withdrawal in 1989.

  13. Civil War • 1989-1998 Civil war in Afghanistan among various factions of mujahedin. Some mujahedin factions become the Taliban. Refugee populations in Pakistan and Iran continue to grow.

  14. Taliban rule • 1998 Taliban controls 90 percent of Afghanistan and establishes extremist rule.

  15. American intervention • After the attacks on September 11, 2001 in the United States, American forces begin a military intervention in Afghanistan, including bombing campaigns. A variety of mujahedin factions fighting for power, united in the fight against the Taliban and begin recapturing cities from the Taliban. • At the present the Taliban has reconstituted and the United States is actively in combat in Afghanistan.

  16. Americans still at war in Afghanistan