Latino Presence Grows • During the 1960’s the population in the United States grew from 3 million to more than 9 million. • Mexican Americans, the Largest Latino group, have lived mostly in the Southwest and California. • Many Mexican citizens immigrated to the US as Braceros or temporary laborers.
Latino Presence Grows • Puerto Ricans began immigrating to the US in 1898. As of 1960, almost 900,000 Puerto Ricans were living in the US and half a million living in New York. • Large Cuban Communities begin to form in New York City, Miami and New Jersey. • Hundreds of thousands fled Castro’s communist rule, mostly were academics and professionals. • Many encountered ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing. • Lived in barrios, Spanish speaking neighborhoods.
Farmer Worker Movement • Thousands of Latinos working on California’s fruit and vegetable farms did backbreaking work for little pay and few benefits. • Cesar Chavez wanted California’s large fruit and vegetable companies to accept their union. • Companies refused and Chavez launched a nationwide boycott of the companies’ grapes. • Chavez believed in non violence protest. He had a 3-week fast. • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)
Brown Power • Demanded that US school system offer Spanish-speaking classes. • In 1968, Congress enacted the Bilingual Education Act: • Provided funds for schools to develop bilingual and cultural heritage programs for non-English speaking students
Brown Power • Young Mexican Americans began calling themselves “Chicanos or Chicanas” a shortened version of “Mexicanos”. • A Chicano community action group called the Brown Berets formed under David Sanchez/ • Brown Berets organized walk outs demanding smaller class sizes, more Chicano teachers, administrators and programs. • Chicano Studies programs were established in Universities.
Political Power • Mexican American Political Association (MAPA) • MAPA helped elect Edward Roybal to the House of Representatives. • During the 1960’s, eight Hispanic Americans served in the House, one Hispanic senator was elected- Joseph Montoya • La Raza Unida • Ran Latino candidates in five states and was races for mayor, as well as positions for school boards and city coucils.
Native Americans Seek Greater Autonomy • As a group, Native Americans have been the poorest of Americans and have suffered from the highest unemployment rates. • Eisenhower enacted the termination policy which relocated Native Americans from isolated reservations to mainstream urban life. • Plan failed
Voice of Protest • American Indian Movement (AIM) • Self defense group against police brutality • Branched out to include protecting the rights of Large Native American populations. • Demanded land, burial grounds, and fishing and timber rights restored
Confronting the Government • “Trail of Broken Treatises” • Protest the US government’s treaty violations throughout history. • Destroyed records and $2 million in property damage in the Building of Indian Affairs (BIA)
Native American Victories • Indian Education Act and Indian Self-Determination Assistance Act • Gave tribes greater control over their own affairs and over their children’s education. • Native Americans received land back from the US government. • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.