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Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality PowerPoint Presentation
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Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality

Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality

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Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality

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  1. Latinos and Native Americans Seek Equality

  2. Latino Presence Grows • During the 1960’s the population in the United States grew from 3 million to more than 9 million. • Mexican Americans, the Largest Latino group, have lived mostly in the Southwest and California. • Many Mexican citizens immigrated to the US as Braceros or temporary laborers.

  3. Latino Presence Grows • Puerto Ricans began immigrating to the US in 1898. As of 1960, almost 900,000 Puerto Ricans were living in the US and half a million living in New York. • Large Cuban Communities begin to form in New York City, Miami and New Jersey. • Hundreds of thousands fled Castro’s communist rule, mostly were academics and professionals. • Many encountered ethnic prejudice and discrimination in jobs and housing. • Lived in barrios, Spanish speaking neighborhoods.

  4. Farmer Worker Movement • Thousands of Latinos working on California’s fruit and vegetable farms did backbreaking work for little pay and few benefits. • Cesar Chavez wanted California’s large fruit and vegetable companies to accept their union. • Companies refused and Chavez launched a nationwide boycott of the companies’ grapes. • Chavez believed in non violence protest. He had a 3-week fast. • United Farm Workers Organizing Committee (UFWOC)

  5. Brown Power • Demanded that US school system offer Spanish-speaking classes. • In 1968, Congress enacted the Bilingual Education Act: • Provided funds for schools to develop bilingual and cultural heritage programs for non-English speaking students

  6. Brown Power • Young Mexican Americans began calling themselves “Chicanos or Chicanas” a shortened version of “Mexicanos”. • A Chicano community action group called the Brown Berets formed under David Sanchez/ • Brown Berets organized walk outs demanding smaller class sizes, more Chicano teachers, administrators and programs. • Chicano Studies programs were established in Universities.

  7. Political Power • Mexican American Political Association (MAPA) • MAPA helped elect Edward Roybal to the House of Representatives. • During the 1960’s, eight Hispanic Americans served in the House, one Hispanic senator was elected- Joseph Montoya • La Raza Unida • Ran Latino candidates in five states and was races for mayor, as well as positions for school boards and city coucils.

  8. Native Americans Struggle for Equality

  9. Native Americans Seek Greater Autonomy • As a group, Native Americans have been the poorest of Americans and have suffered from the highest unemployment rates. • Eisenhower enacted the termination policy which relocated Native Americans from isolated reservations to mainstream urban life. • Plan failed

  10. Voice of Protest • American Indian Movement (AIM) • Self defense group against police brutality • Branched out to include protecting the rights of Large Native American populations. • Demanded land, burial grounds, and fishing and timber rights restored

  11. Confronting the Government • “Trail of Broken Treatises” • Protest the US government’s treaty violations throughout history. • Destroyed records and $2 million in property damage in the Building of Indian Affairs (BIA)

  12. Native American Victories • Indian Education Act and Indian Self-Determination Assistance Act • Gave tribes greater control over their own affairs and over their children’s education. • Native Americans received land back from the US government. • Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971.