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Female Genital Mutilation

Female Genital Mutilation

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Female Genital Mutilation

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  1. Female Genital Mutilation Julie Baumgart Molly Larsen Erin Morcomb

  2. What is Female Genital Mutilation? Removal of all or part of…. • Clitoris • Clitoral Hood • Labia Minora • Labia Majora • Sewing together of outer labia majora to create a dime or nickel-sized vaginal opening

  3. Before and After

  4. Types of FGM • Type 1 (Clitoridectomy) -The removal of all or part of the clitoris • Type 2 (Excision) -Removal of all of part of the labia minora • Type 3 (Infibulation/Pharaonic) -Two sides of the vulva are sewed together except for a small opening to permit the passage of urine and menstrual blood

  5. History of Female Genital Mutilation WHEN/WHERE? • Developed in Islamic countries WHY? • Sexuality diminished; less promiscuous • Cure insanity, epilepsy, catalepsy, hysteria • Decreased transmission of HIV/AIDS • Proof of virginity, dignity, fertility • Spiritual and physical threat to baby in utero or to husband during sexual intercourse • Makes young girls less masculine

  6. Immediate Health Risks of FGM • Kidney Infection • Anemia • Pubic cysts/abcesses • Very painful menses • Keloid formation • Urine retention • Dehydration • Fever • Gangrene • Genital Infection • Hemorrhaging • Death • Septicema • Tetanus • Urinary Tract Infection

  7. Immediate FGM-Related Complications in Four Kenyan Districts

  8. Long-term Health Risks of FGM • Infertility • Psychological Problems • Limited choice of contraceptives • Incontinence • Urethral & Vaginal Stenosis • Fistula • Birth Complications • Dispareunia

  9. Chronic FGM-Related Complications Encountered by Health Providers in Kenya

  10. Social Implications • Unlikely that they will ever marry In Sudan… • 10% of women believed that having the procedure done would increase their likelihood of finding a husband • 7.8% of men preferred a non-circumcised life partner

  11. Personal Implications of Refusal of FGM • Look at labia majora, clitoris and labia minora as male sexual organs • View operation as ridding women of small penis and they are then a true woman

  12. Religious Implications of Refusal of FGM • Majority believe that it is female responsibility to have it done to please their husband • Tightening done so that sex is more pleasureable for men (“wifely duty”) • Chastity

  13. Reasons for Supporting FGM in Egypt, Mali, Central African Republic, and Eritrea

  14. Relevance in Countries Outside of Africa • Certain groups support the continuation of this practice for their own economic purposes Illegal in… • Great Britain • France • Germany • Sweden

  15. Relevance of FGM in the USA • Immigration • Sex in the media- *Cosmetic Surgery (Dr. 90210)

  16. Criminalizing FGM in the USA

  17. What are we doing to protect women and children from FGM? • Somali Debate • Swedish law

  18. What do men think and feel about this practice being done to women? • Some men enjoy the tightening from infibulation • Others are disgusted by the thought of forcible sex • Some men prefer to keep the tradition