Growth and Development Chapter 8
Adolescence: A Time of Change Lesson 1
Mood swings are a normal part of adolescence. Changes During Adolescence Differences in how younger or older teens may look are caused by adolescence. adolescence The period between childhood and adulthood
Changes During Adolescence Hormones are produced in the endocrine system. endocrine system A body system containing glands that regulate growth and other important activities
Changes During Adolescence These glands make up the endocrine system: Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Pancreas Ovaries /Testes
Physical Changes Physical changes that occur during puberty include the growth of body hair and increased sweating, or perspiration. puberty The time when you start developing the physical characteristics of adults of your gender
Female • Hips wider • Menstruation • Acne • Increase sweating • Increased levels of hormones • Underarm / pubic hair • Development of breasts • Formation of mature eggs • Increase in body fat
Male • Facial / pubic hair / underarm hair • Deepened voice • Acne • Increased sweating • Increased hormones • Production of sperm • Shoulders broadened • Muscle development
Mental/Emotional Changes Changes in hormones can affect your feelings as well as your thoughts. You may experience mood swings.
Human Reproduction Lesson 2
Human Reproduction The male reproductive system is different than the female reproductive system. reproductive system The body system that makes it possible to create offspring
The Female Reproductive System The two main functions of the female reproductive system are: • Storing egg cells • To reproduce egg cell The female reproductive cell
The Female Reproductive System The process of reproduction begins when the egg cell joins with a male reproductive cell (sperm cell). The ovaries are the two female reproductive glands that store the egg cells.
The Female Reproductive System After fertilization, an egg will travel to the uterus, the organ in which the baby will develop. fertilization The joining of a female egg with a male reproductive cell
The Female Reproductive System Menstruation is often referred to as a “period.” menstruation Blood, tissue, and the unfertilized egg flow out of the body
The Male Reproductive System Sperm cells are made inside the testes. sperm The male reproductive cells The testes begin making sperm cells during puberty.
Heredity and the Life Cycle Lesson 3
Heredity Heredity is the process by which parents pass certain traits to their children. Hair color and body build are examples of inherited traits.
Heredity Traits are passed along by chromosomes. chromosomes Tiny strands of matter that carry the codes for inherited traits Chromosomes are made up of genes. genes The basic units of heredity
Chromosomes and Fertilization • Among each sperm’s 23 chromosomes, one alone determines the gender of the fertilized egg cell. • An egg caries only an X chromosome. Sperm carry either an X or Y chromosome. • If a sperm carries an X chromosome, a female will result. If a sperm carries a Y chromosome, a male will result.
The newly fertilizedegg travels downthe fallopian tubeto the uterus. The egg attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. The egg begins to be divided millions of times. The tissues, organs, and body systems are eventually formed. Development Before Birth
The Developing Baby In the uterus, the fetus receives oxygen and nutrients through a tube called the umbilical cord. fetus What the developing unborn baby is known as from the eighth week until birth
The Developing Baby Throughout pregnancy, an expectant mother needs prenatal care. prenatal care Special care to ensure that the expectant mother and the baby remain healthy Prenatal care includes eating healthy foods, getting enough rest, and seeing the doctor regularly.
The Life Cycle The life cycle is divided into six major stages. Infancy Childhood Adolescence EarlyAdulthood MiddleAdulthood LateAdulthood Age 1 Ages1–11 Ages12–18 Ages19–30 Ages30–60 Ages60+