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Deviance and Social Control PowerPoint Presentation
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Deviance and Social Control

Deviance and Social Control

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Deviance and Social Control

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    1. Deviance and Social Control Revision Session

    2. Key Words Behaviour which breaks the unwritten rules (norms) of society. Behaviour that is illegal

    3. What makes an act Deviant? Place: Where an action takes place (eg public or private) Society or Culture: Views on what is appropriate behaviour varies across different societies Period of Time: what is considered appropriate behaviour alters over time Who commits the act: Whether an act is seen as deviant sometimes depends on who is doing it Power: The more powerful a group is in society, the less likely that their activities will be seen as deviant Accepted Values: The further away from an accepted value an act is, the greater the chance of it being labelled as deviant, even if it causes no harm

    4. Who makes the rules? Laws are made by: Parliament Judges and lawyers. Laws are made because people wanted them made. They reflect the views of the people who made them.

    5. What makes an act criminal? Clash of Values: This is where an act is so strongly disapproved of be the majority of the population that it becomes illegal (eg Murder and rape) Moral Crusades: A group of people may have particularly strong views on certain forms of behaviour and campaign to make them illegal (eg fox hunting). This can sometimes be linked to moral panics which is when the media whip up a tide of concern over a certain issue so that the public demands something is done about it (eg Dangerous Dogs) Power: Very powerful groups in society will use their influence to have the laws altered to their benefit. Some sociologists eg Marxists, argue that the laws in this country are designed to protect the rich from the poor (eg Trade Union laws being tightened)

    6. Socialisation and Social Control Through socialisation we learn the values and expectations of society (the norms). Social control is the process through which people are encouraged to conform to the norms of society. People who deviate from accepted behaviour will be punished (sanctioned) Socialisation= learning to conform Social Control = maintaining conformity

    7. The Agents of Social Control These are the people or organisations that make sure we conform and punish us if we dont. There are two types: Informal Social Control: This is based on the approval or disapproval of those around us that we see as important (family, friends, peer group etc) Formal Social Control: This is based on enforcing rules we follow that have been written down, usually with official sanctions.

    8. Why do people commit crimes? Biological Explanations there may be a crime gene or people may have chemical imbalances that causes them to act in a deviant way Psychological Explanations Crime may be caused by mental illness Sociological Explanations emphasis environmental factors labelling, poor socialisation, sub-cultures, relative deprivation etc. They are also interested in how age, ethnicity, gender, class and place affect the rate of offending

    9. Labelling Labelling theory says crime exists because people were labelled as criminals by other people. If we treat people as criminal, they will behave in a criminal way A self fulfilling prophecy If they are unable to escape their label it may become their master status the most important thing about them

    10. Socialisation Some sociologists argue that crime occurs because people have not been properly socialised. There may not have been a male role model for bys growing up. Problem children often grow into problem adults.

    11. Sub-culture theories Sub-cultural theories claim that criminals mix with other criminals. They have different values and beliefs from the rest of us. They act in a criminal way because they do not feel what they are doing is wrong.

    12. Marxist theories Some sociologists say that crime exists because society is very unequal. The rich make the laws in order to protect their wealth and power therefore propery theft is punished more harshly than tax evasion The real criminals are the rich people who exploit the rest of us and make us poor. Criminals are just rejecting the society we live in.

    13. Crime Statistics Official Statistics can show us trends and changes over time However, they are not always accurate. There are three factors that affect the accuracy of the statistics: reporting of crime by the public, recording by the police, and the activities of the police.

    14. The Dark Figure Unrecorded crimes The Dark figure is several times higher than the official crime rates There are important differences between the recording rates of different crimes. For instance violent crimes are more likely to be reported.

    15. Moral Panics Deviancy Amplification: Where the media over exaggerates the rate of certain crimes Moral Panic: An issue or reported a lot by the media, causing public alarm, so the public demand the government take action.

    16. Finding out the real crime rate Victim Surveys: Asking a representative sample of the population what crimes they have been victims of. Self Report Studies/Tests: This is asking people what crimes they have committed. The most well known example of this is the British Crime Survey, a national survey taken every five years. These are always done anonymously

    17. Self Report Studies/Tests This is asking people what crimes they have committed. This is always given anonymously so that that people can feel free to admit to crimes. It allows researchers to measure the proportion of crimes committed by the people who have never been arrested or charged by the police. What is a Self Report Study? Do you think this will give a more accurate reflection?

    18. White Collar Crime White Collar Crime: When an employee commits a crime at work eg theft from company Corporate Crime: When a business acts illegally, eg ignoring health and safety laws, tax fraud Both of these are big problems but they are not taken as seriously by the criminal justice system