Chapter 2Foundation of Individual Behavior Alexandra Hai Women Gondola operator - Failed test 4 times - Publicity Stunt! - Let the tradition live?
Employee’sAbilities Job’s AbilityRequirements Ability- We were not created equal • An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. (Strength and Weaknesses) • Two ability factors • Intellectual Ability • Physical Ability Ability-JobFit
Intellectual Ability- IQ, LSAT, GMAT, GRE • The capacity to do mental activities • Thinking • Reasoning • Problem Solving
IQ Impact • Strong correlation among various Intellectual Ability Dimensions • GMA • 12 Minutes Intelligence test! • Timing, Question Sequence • Routine Jobs • Job Performance • Job Satisfaction of smart people! • No correlation • Expectation? Critical?
Physical Abilities • The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity (agility), strength, and similar characteristics. Exhibit 2-2 | P51 Nine Physical Abilities
Biographical CharacteristicsAge • Resistance to change- Technology? • Slow- less productive? • Age (+) • Turnover ! (-) • Absenteeism ! • Avoidable (-) • Unavoidable (+) • Productivity/Job performance (+) • Job Satisfaction • Professional (+) • Non-professional (u)
Biographical CharacteristicsGender • Few difference between men and women from a job perspective • Problem Solving • Analytical skills • Competitive drive • Motivation, Sociability • Learning Ability • Absence~ More Women • Voluntary Turnover (~)
Biographical Characteristics Am I Biased? P 56
Learning- Going to school • Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. 3 Theories of Learning
Learning Theories1. Classical Conditioning • A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. • The dog Experiment by Mr. Pavlov, 1900 • Meat - Meat & Bell
Learning Theories2. Operant Conditioning • A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Behavior = f(Consequence) • Associate stimulus and behavior • Vs. Feeling, thoughts, other states causes behavior
3. Social-Learning Theory • People can learn through observation and direct experience. • From Parents, Boss, Teachers, Pictures, TV • Operant conditioning? • Behavior = f(Consequence) • Objective? Perception?
3. Social-Learning Theory …Learning from models • Attention-al processes • People recognize and pay attention to critical features • Learn from Models that are- Attractive, Available, Important, Similar to us • Retention processes (Remember) • Motor reproduction processes • Watch >> do • Reinforcement processes (Incentives/Rewards)
Shaping Behavior • Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. • How to • Reinforcement to change behavior • Effective rewards • The timing of reinforcement 30 vs 20 mins late
Schedules of Reinforcement HR Manager (Praise) Slot Machines! Why not Continuous?
Schedules of Reinforcement (Intermittent) Hourly Salaries Audits
Fixed-ratio Compliments Schedules of Reinforcement & Application Paychecks Pop Quiz Piece-rate Pay Commissions
Behavior Modification OB Mod- The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting. Five Step Problem-Solving Model
Well Pay versus Sick Pay Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence. Employee Discipline The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness Self-management Reduces the need for external management control OB MOD (Emery) Applications
Assignment IOA- Ch1-2 Duration: June 3- June 6
Summary • Define the key biographical characteristics. • Identify two types of ability. • Shape the behavior of others • Distinguish between the four schedules of reinforcement. • Clarify the role of punishment in learning. • Practice self-management