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C D A

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C D A

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  1. C D A THE CENTRAL DRUG AUTHORITYAND THE DRUG PROBLEM IN SAA PRESENTATION TO THEPARLIAMENTARY PORTFOLIO COMMITTEEONSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTPART 1 CDA: May 2008

  2. C D A CONTENTS • A NEW DEFINITION OF ADDICTION • THE NATURE OF THE DRUG PROBLEM IN SA • THE NATURE OF THE ALCOHOL PROBLEM IN SA • SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES FOR THE YOUTH • LINK TO THE CDA MANDATE AND THE NDMP 2006-2011 CDA: May 2008

  3. C D A WHAT IS ADDICTION? • 1918 – A disease affecting a few unfortunates • 1940’s – The results of sin • 1980’s on- A chronic relapsing and ultimately fatal illness with no cure other than abstention CDA: May 2008

  4. C D A WHAT IS ADDICTION? • 2000 – A state of physiological adaptation to the presence of a drug in the body so that the absence of the drug leads to physiological dysfunction which is unpleasant or even life-threatening. • A syndrome at the centre of which is impaired control over a behaviour with loss of control leading to significant harm. CDA: May 2008

  5. C D A WHAT IS ADDICTION? • 2006- A chronic condition of the motivational system in which reward-seeking has become out of control and which leads to significant harm (West: 2006) CDA: May 2008

  6. C D A WHAT IS SUBSTANCE ADDICTION? • A NEW DEFINITION: Substance addiction is chronic, relapsing, out-of-control and significantly harmful reward-seeking behaviour for which there is no cure other than abstention. CDA: May 2008

  7. C D A WHAT IS SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE? • The same as “addiction” only more politically correct. • User-friendly term. • Not a denigrating term • People now move from “state of addiction” to a “non-addictive state” or from being ‘dependent’ to being “non-dependent” • Note that one remains an addict or a dependent but one’s state changes. • There is no cure for substance dependence other than life-long abstinence CDA: May 2008

  8. C D A THE NATURE OF THE DRUG PROBLEM IN SA % OF POPULATION CDA: May 2008

  9. C D A DRUG USERS IN SA IN MILLIONS PROBLEM USERS 235 777 DIRECT COSTS R10bn pa CDA: May 2008

  10. C D A THE NATURE OF THE ALCOHOL PROBLEM IN SA CDA: May 2008

  11. C D A PERCENTAGE AND TYPE OF RECORDED ALCOHOL CONSUMED CDA: May 2008

  12. C D A TOTAL CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL SA’s 10.1 m drinkers EACH drink per year: 196 six-packs of beer, or 62 bottles of spirits, or 220 bottles of wine, or 666 cartons of sorghum beer 20.1 L of pure alcohol per head = Top Ten in the World! CDA: May 2008

  13. C D A THE DRUG PROBLEM: ADULTS UP CLOSE AND PERSONAL • THINK ABOUT: • Binge Drinkers: 37% plus • Monday drivers: 10% drunk • DUI: 7000 deaths per annum • Drug dealers of 18: R100k per day turnover • Dependent of 24: R5000 per day • Link between drug use, HIV/AIDS, TB, violence and crime • Co-dependents: Bankrupt and destitute • Heroin dependents: 2% recovery success • All dependents: 47% plus bipolar CDA: May 2008

  14. C D A ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONGST ADOLESCENTS CDA: May 2008

  15. C D A THE NATURE OF THE ALCOHOL PROBLEM IN SCHOOLS 9 TOTS/1 L WINE/2L BEER DAILY/WEEKENDS ? ? COST TO COUNTRY? (After Parry) THE DRINKERS’ PYRAMID CDA: May 2008

  16. C D A LIFETIME SUBSTANCE USE BY LEARNERS Youth Risk Behaviour 2002 CDA: May 2008

  17. C D A • YOUNG SUBSTANCE USERS AND POTENTIAL HARM • Crime and violence • Accidents and injuries • Risky sexual behaviour/unplanned pregnancies/STI’s/HIV and AIDS • Learning problems • Mental and physical health problems CDA: May 2008

  18. C D A PERCENTAGE OF USER AND NON-USER LEARNERS REPORTING BEING STABBED Youth Risk Behaviour 2002 CDA: May 2008

  19. C D A PERCENTAGE OF USERS AND NON-USERS REPORTING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE Youth Risk Behaviour 2002 CDA: May 2008

  20. PERCENTAGE OF USERS AND NON-USERS REPORTING EXPULSION Youth Risk Behaviour 2002 CDA: May 2008

  21. C D A THE DRUG PROBLEM: THE YOUTH UP CLOSE AND MORE PERSONAL • THINK ABOUT SCHOOLS & YOUNG OFFENDERS: • Age of Dependence: 12 years and reducing. • School children: 1 in 2 experimented • Drug dealers in schools: Target schools • Increase in injection drug use (IDU) • HIV/AIDS in prisons linked to IDU • Tik :42% to 98% level in Cape treatment centres • SACENDU and ISS: Positive link between drugs and violence • Drug Disguises: Peanuts; tattoos; sweets; cakes; lollipops CDA: May 2008

  22. C D A CONDITIONS NEEDED FOR ADDICTION TO START PEOPLE SUSCEPTIBLE TO ADDICTION SUPPLY DEMAND EXPERIMENTATION CDA: May 2008

  23. C D A CDA STRATEGIES FOR COMBATING ADDICTION CDA: May 2008

  24. C D A CONCLUSION • The drug problem in South Africa is extremely serious, with drug usage at twice the world norm, and • alcohol consumption among the Top 10. • The socio-economic consequences of this cost the country more than Rbn 20 per year. • The CDA integrated strategy is incorporated in the National Drug Master Plan. CDA: May 2008