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Stress Management

Stress Management

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Stress Management

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  1. Building Resilience in Children and Young People Stress Management Teacher Professional Development

  2. Stress Management • Explicit Teaching of Stress Management Strategies • The Building Resilience Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) lesson materials provide an opportunity for students to identify the types of experience that they find stressful • They incorporate an explicit focus on teaching approaches to stress-management, including: • a range of guided relaxation exercises to practice self-calming • breathing and counting techniques to manage anger • use of positive and technical self-talk • use of productive coping strategies

  3. Stress Management • Why Teach Stress Management Children who cope better with life’s stressors develop good mental health and wellbeing (Frydenberg 2010) A meta-analysis of 15 different programs that teach children self-calming, relaxation or mindfulness mediation found significant positive results in 61% of cases The study identified the value of school-based programs that teach these skills (Waters et al. 2014)

  4. Stress Management • Why Teach Self-Calming Strategies • Self-calming strategies help people release tension and to regulate their emotions • Relaxation, anger-management and self-calming strategies can be taught to children and young people • Research shows that students appreciate the chance to learn and practice these strategies and feel the need to apply them in their lives

  5. Stress Management • Common Stressors for Children Young children (age 3-5) are affected by a range of stressors, the most common being: uncertainty fear of being abandoned by a significant adult fear of toileting accidents fear of getting into trouble with a teacher or parent fear of being punished by adults fear of trying something new being bullied or teased wanting to belong to a group fear of the dark fear of losing something or someone special. (Frydenberg, Deans, & O'Brien 2012)

  6. Stress Management • Stress in Young People • A major survey of Australian young people aged 15-19 showed that: • 40% reported being extremely concerned or very concerned about coping with stress • 37% found that school or study problems were a major concern (Mission Australia 2013)

  7. Stress Management • Mental health problems in children and young people • Mental health problems are experienced by an estimated • 14% of 4-17 year olds (Sawyer et al. 2000) • 27% of 18-25 year olds (Slade et al. 2009) • 9% of young people aged 16-25 have ‘high’ or ‘very high’ levels of psychological distress (Slade et al. 2009) • Females are twice as likely as males to report high or very high levels of psychological distress (Slade et al. 2009) • 75% of mental health problems emerge before the age of 25 (Kessler et al. 2007) • 19% of 12-24 year olds live with a parent who has a mental health problem (AIHW 2011)

  8. Stress Management • Data from Mental Health Youth Report • In 2013, 14,461 young people aged 15-19 years participated in Mission Australia’s Youth Survey • The survey used a widely accepted measure of non-specific psychological distress known as the Kessler 6 (K6) which consists of a six-item scale that asks about experiences of anxiety and depressive symptoms during the past four weeks • The K6 was used to classify Youth Survey respondents into two groups - those with a ‘probable serious mental illness’ and those with ‘no probable serious mental illness’ • Just over one fifth (21.2%) of young people aged 15 -19 who responded to the survey met the criteria for having a probable serious mental illness, ranging from 19.4% for 19 year olds to 21.5% for 15 year olds • Females were almost twice as likely as males to meet criteria for having a probable serious mental illness (26.2% compared to 13.8%) (Mission Australia 2014)

  9. Stress Management • Some Groups are More Vulnerable than Others • Females almost twice as likely to be classified as having a probable serious mental illness as males (26.2% compared to 13.8%) • Rates of probable serious mental illness were very similar for those born in Australia (21.2%) and those not (21.1%) • Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander respondents had considerably higher rates of probable serious mental illness (31.8% compared to 20.7%) • Rates of probable serious mental illness were substantially higher for respondents who reported a disability than those who didn’t (32.8% compared to 20.3%)

  10. Stress Management • Higher distress levels for young people with a probable serious mental illness • When compared with than those without a probable serious mental illness, young people with a probable serious mental illness were: • around 5 times more likely to express serious concerns about depression (57.0% compared to 11.5%) • around 5 times more likely to express serious concerns about suicide (35.3% compared to 6.8%) • 2.5 times more likely to indicate that coping with stress was a major concern (71.7% compared to 29.5%) • around twice as likely to indicate that school or study problems were a major concern (61.6% compared to 31.0%) • around twice as likely to indicate that body image is a major concern (57.1% compared to 23.8%) • Almost 3 times more likely to have serious concerns around family conflict (40.1% compared to 14.2%) (Mission Australia 2014)

  11. Females with a probable serious mental illness Coping with stress 77.9% School or study problems 66.0% Body image 65.9% Depression 59.8% Males with a probable serious mental illness: Coping with stress 54.9% Depression49.7% School or study problems 49.4% Body image 32.9% • Stress Management • Top concerns – higher distress levels for females than males Source: From Mission Australia Youth Mental Health report of Young Australians June 2014 http://www.missionaustralia.com.au

  12. Stress Management • More serious concerns about more issues • Young people without a probable serious mental illness had serious concerns about 1.6 issues, compared with 4.3 for those with a probable serious mental illness • In addition to having more serious concerns about the issues, young people with a probable serious mental illness also appear to be trying to cope with a higher load of issues than those without a probable serious mental disorder (Mission Australia 2014)

  13. Stress Management • Lower help-seeking comfort for those in most need • When compared with than those without a probable serious mental illness, young people with a probable serious mental illness are substantially more uncomfortable seeking information, advice or support from: • Parents: 32.8% compared to 10.3% • Relatives/family friends: 34.3% compared to 14.5% • Teachers: 49.6% compared to 29.2% • Friends and the internet are the top sources of information, advice or support that young people, both with and without a probable serious mental illnessgo to (Mission Australia 2014)

  14. Stress Management • Key issues of concern for children & young people • 60% of male and female respondents with a probable serious mental illness felt uncomfortable accessing help from: • a telephone hotline 69.5% • a community agency 60.2% • online counselling services 61.7% • Males with a probable serious mental illness were more uncomfortable than females in seeking information, advice and support from: • friends (18.3% compared to 11.4%) • the internet (21.7% compared to 13.6%) • magazines (50.5% compared to 36.2%)

  15. Stress Management • Top five stressors for children and young people (BoysTown 2013)

  16. Stress Management • Activities in the Stress management SEL lessons aim to assist students to: • Recognise and identify their own emotions • Describe situations that may evoke these emotions • Recognise and identify how their emotions influence the way they feel and act • Express their emotions constructively • Identify and describe personal coping skills and explain how these contribute to family and school life • Discuss the ways in which they can use self-calming strategies to manage themselves in stressful situations • Describe the influence that people, situations and events have on their emotions • Explore strategies to manage physical, social and emotional change • Describe and apply strategies that can be used in situations that make them feel uncomfortable or unsafe • Explain the value of self-discipline and goal-setting in helping them to learn and to cope with change and challenge • Describe personal strengths and identify coping strategies that they can apply to help them cope with change and challenge • Critique their effectiveness in working independently by identifying enablers and barriers to achieving goals • Identify indicators of possible problems in relationships in a range of situations • Examine influences on and consequences of their emotional responses in a variety of contexts • Assess, adapt and modify personal strategies and plans and revisit tasks with renewed confidence • Analyse personal characteristics and skill sets that contribute to or limit their personal and social capability • Evaluate, rethink and refine approaches to tasks to take account of unexpected or difficult situations • Develop and apply criteria to evaluate the outcome of decisions and analyse the consequences of decision making • Generate, apply and evaluate strategies to prevent and resolve interpersonal problems and conflicts Foundation Level 9/10

  17. Stress Management • Teacher Activity: Sources of Stress In groups of four, make a list of some of the stresses and challenges people around your age can face (include stresses or challenges in the physical environment, relationships, events, fears, anxieties or thoughts which affect how you feel either physically or emotionally) As groups report back, have scribes collect a comprehensive list on large sheets of paper or on the board using the headings: Life event (e.g. moving house), School, Home, Friends, Futures, Sport Discuss: How might these stressors be affected by time or change over time? This activity is adapted from the Level 7-8 Building Resilience learning materials (Topic 5: Stress management, Activity 2)

  18. 6e. Stress Management • REFLECT • What strategies to you use to deal with your own stress? • How do you manage stressful situations in the classroom?

  19. 6e. Stress Management • SAFEMindshttp://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/health/Pages/safeminds.aspx • Headspace www.headspace.org.au/ • Beyond blue www.beyondblue.org.au/ • Smiling Mind www.smilingmind.com.au/

  20. 6e. Stress Management • References • BoysTown. (2013). Kids Helpline Overview 2012. Milton, Qld: Boystown2011. • Frydenberg, E. (2010). Think positively! A course for developing coping skills in adolescents. London: Continuum International Publishing Group. • Frydenberg, E., Deans, J., & O'Brien, K. (2012). Developing everyday coping skills in the early years: Proactive strategies for supporting social and emotional development. London: Continuum Inc. Press. • Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., & Üstün, T. B. (2007). Age of onset mental disorders: a review of recent literature. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20(4), 359-364. • Mission Australia. (2013). Youth Survey 2013. Sydney: Mission Australia. • Mission Australia Youth Mental Health report of Young Australians June 2014 http://www.missionaustralia.com.au • Sawyer, M.G, Arney, F. M., Baghurst, P. A., Clark, J. J., Graetz, B. W., Kosky, R. J., . . . Zubrick, S.R. (2000). The Mental Health of Young People in Australia: Key Findings from the Child and Adolescent Component of the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35(6), 806-814 • Seligman, M. (1995). The Optimistic Child, Sydney: Random House. • Seligman, M., et al. (2009). Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3): p. 293-311. • Seligman, M., (2002). Authentic Happiness, New York: Free Press. • Slade, T. , Johnston, A., Teesson, M., Whiteford, H. , Burgess, P., & Pirkis, J. (2009). The mental health of Australians 2: Report on the 2007 national survey of mental health and wellbeing. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing. • Waters, L., Barsky, A., Ridd, A., & Allen, K. (2014). Contemplative Education: A Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of the effect of Meditation Interventions in Schools. EducPsychol Rev, 26(1).