Decrease Minimisation of Labour Cost McGoldrick (2002), “Retail Marketing,” 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill: London
Decrease Customers’ Control and Enjoyment • Lower level of dependence • Fun to do self-service!! Dbholkar (1996), “Consumer Evaluations of New Technology-Based Self-Service Options,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, 13(1), pp. 29-51
Decrease Customers’ own co-operation increase their satisfaction of service quality Bettencourt (1997), “Customer voluntary performance: Customers as partners in service delivery,” Journal of Retailing, 73(3), pp. 383-406
Decrease The use of technology to understand customers better and more scientifically • Data mining Shaw et al. (2001), “Knowledge management and data mining for marketing,” Decision Support System, 31(1), pp. 127-137
Increase / Remain Can be a competitive advantage Contact employees deliver the promises of the firm, create an image for the firm and sell the firm’s services Bettencourt and Brown (1997), “Contact employees: relationships among workplace fairness, job satisfaction and pro-social service behaviours,“ Journal of Retailing, 73(3), pp. 383-406
Increase / Remain Social interchange is an important element in the remembered role of the retail store Baron et al. (1996), “Oral participation in retail service delivery: a comparison of the roles of contact personnel and customers,” European Journal of Marketing, 30(9), pp. 75-90.
Increase / Remain Building relationship with customers can increase satisfaction and loyalty, generate positive word of mouth and also increase purchases Reynolds and Beatty (1999), “Customer benefits and company consequences of customer-salesperson relationships in retailing,” Journal of Retailing, 75(1), pp. 11-32
Increase / Remain Highly capable and motivated employees provided some unusual augmented services of their customers Beatty et al. (1996), “Customer-sales associate relation relationships,” Journal of Retailing, 72(3), pp. 223-247; Kelley and Hoffman (1997), “An investigation of positive affect, prosocial behaviours and service quality,” Journal of Retailing, 73(3), pp. 407-427.
Mediating Factors Consumer Characteristics • Time Poverty • Shopping Enjoyment • Shopping Confidence • Social Needs Reynolds and Beatty (1999), “A Relationship Customer Typology,” Journal of Retailing, 75(4), pp. 509-523.
Mediating Factors • Others, e.g. • Product Type • Price Level • Buying Frequency • Customer Gender McGoldrick (2002), “Retail Marketing,” 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill: London
Further Reading… • Meuter et al. (2000), “Self-Service Technology: Understanding Customer Satisfaction With Technology-Based Service Encounters,” Journal of Marketing, 64(3), pp. 50-64 • Bitner et al. (2000) “Technology Infusion in Service Encounters,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28(1), pp.138-149 • Bateson (1985), “Self-service consumer: an exploratory study,” Journal of Retailing, 61(3), pp. 49-76 • Wulf et al. (2001), “Investments in consumer relationships: a cross country and cross industry exploration,” Journal of Marketing, 65(4), pp. 33-50
Public Relations Definition and Objectives Its relationship with Marketing Strengths vs. Weaknesses
Public Relations • Definition • Public relations is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain good relationships, mutual understanding, sympathy and goodwill with secondary target groups, also called publics, audiences or stakeholders. Public Relations Practice-Its Role and Parameters (1984), London The Institute of Public Relations
Objectives • Promoting Goodwill • An image-building function of public relations and events are organised to reflect favourably on a firm • Promoting a Product or Service • To increase public awareness of a firm’s brands and products O’Guinn et al (2009), Advertising & Integrated Brand Promotion, Chapter 20, Mason, Ohio: South Western
Objectives • Preparing Internal Communication • Disseminate information and correct misinformation within a firm to reduce the impact of rumours and increase employee morale • Counteracting negative publicity • To prevent the negative publicity from damaging the image of a firm and its brands O’Guinn et al (2009), Advertising & Integrated Brand Promotion, Chapter 20, Mason, Ohio: South Western
Objectives • Lobbying • Assist a firm in dealing with government officials and pending legislations • Giving Advice and Counsel • Assisting management in determining what position to take on public issues, preparing employees for public appearances, and helping management anticipate public reactions O’Guinn et al (2009), Advertising & Integrated Brand Promotion, Chapter 20, Mason, Ohio: South Western