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  1. Stranded List 4 things that your group would take with them if they were stranded on a desert island. Be prepared to explain why.

  2. Sociological Perspectives Unit 1

  3. True or False…? Personal troubles are really public issues :) ~C. Wright Mills

  4. Unit 1 Sociological Perspectives Overview What is sociology? Origins of sociology Theoretical perspectives Research Methods Causation in science Procedures and ethics in research

  5. What is Sociology? • Perspectives – particular point of view • Sociology- scientific study of social structure; studies human society and social behavior; study of patterns in society • Sociological perspective- a view that looks at behavior of groups, not individuals • Social sciences • Social structure- the patterned interaction of people in social relationships • Conformity • All groups encourage conformity • Sociological imagination- ability to see the link between society and self (social awareness) • C. Wright Mills • Careers in sociology – see Sociology Today worksheet p.12

  6. Perspectives • Draw a road map to Madigan’s. • Start from where you are sitting right now. • Compare maps with others Why did you choose the route you did? Defend your route. Why is it the best? As social beings our perspectives (or social maps) aren’t always the same as those of other people and therefore our reality isn’t the same either.

  7. Answer the following statements… Young men join gangs because________. A woman divorces her husband because________. Immigrants come here because________.

  8. Sociological Imagination Shoe and Coffee Cup Focus on the object that has the most personal meaning to you. Describe the object with a few sentences. Who manufactures the object? Who sells the object? Who buys the object? When did they start making the object? Does everyone use it? Are there other uses for this object? Who, if anyone, suffers from this object? Most objects have a wider social and economic significance than just a personal one. Other lives are connected to it. The sociological imagination asks us to see our lives in terms of the larger picture.

  9. The Origins of Sociology European origins • Auguste Comte (kaw NT) (French: 1798-1857) • Founder of sociology, coined the term sociology • Positivism- the belief that knowledge should be derived from scientific observation • Social statics- study of social stability and order • Social dynamics- study of social change

  10. The Origins of Sociology • Harriet Martineau (English: 1802-1876) • Emphasized sociology as a science • Feminism • Believed that women's lack of economic power kept them dependant • Translated Comte • Author of Society in America

  11. The origins of Sociology • Herbert Spencer (English: 1820-1903) • Social Darwinism • Coined the term “survival of the fittest” • Evolutionary social change • will occur without interference from people; society will prosper as a result • Opposed social reform

  12. The Origins of Sociology • Karl Marx (German: 1818-1883) • Identified several different social classes, predicted that at some point society would be left with only two • Proletariats- working class; those who labor for the bourgeoisie • Bourgeoisie- class owning the means for producing wealth (factories & equipment) • Capitalists- person who owns or controls the means for producing wealth • class conflict- ongoing struggle between he bourgeoisie and the proletariat • class conflict- ongoing struggle between he bourgeoisie and the proletariat • Proletariat will rise up and overthrow the bourgeoisie • A classless society will result (communism) • All of history is a struggle of class

  13. The Origins of Sociology(Later European Scholars) • Emile Durkheim (French: 1858-1917) • Society exists due to consensus of members of society; functions maintain social order • Mechanical solidarity: (pre-industrial societies) social dependency based on a widespread consensus of values and beliefs, enforced conformity, and dependence on tradition and family • Organic solidarity: (industrial societies) social interdependency based on a high degree of specialization in roles • Make people dependent on one another for goods and services • Suicide

  14. The Origins of Sociology (Later European Scholars) • Max Weber (German: 1864-1920) • Sociologists must discover the personal meanings, values, beliefs, and attitudes underlying social behavior • Verstehen: understanding the social behavior of others by putting themselves mentally in their places; allows you to see things from a different point of view • Rationalization: the mindset that emphasizes knowledge, reason and planning • Key influence in the change from an preindustrial to industrial society • Ideal Type: essential characteristics of a feature of society

  15. “A fatal want of harmony between theory and [sociology students] lives, a lack of coordination between thought and action…” Sociology in Early America • Jane Addams (American: 1860-1935) • Social reformer • Applied sociology: service learning • Hull House (Chicago) • Immigrants, sick, poor, and aged received help • Could see first hand the effects of the industrial revolution on the lower class • Nobel peace prize in 1931

  16. Sociology in Early America • W.E.B. Du Bois (American: 1868-1963) • Studied race relations • Social structure of African American communities • Social Action • Co-founder of the NAACP • Civil rights • Pan-Africanism

  17. Theoretical Perspectives What is theoretical perspective? • A set of assumptions accepted as true 3 theoretical perspectives: • functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism

  18. Musical Floobs 1. You must sit out if you don’t have a chair when the music stops. 2. Anyone left without a place to sit at the end of future rounds may share a chair with someone. When resources (chairs {floobs}) become limited, cooperation becomes necessary (functionalist). In the first round, as resources (chairs{floobs}) became limited, competition developed-the conflict perspective. Students sitting on the floor eliminated the need for competition or conflict and the cooperation made the situation functional for everyone. How is this game representative of the functionalist and the conflict perspectives?

  19. Theoretical Perspectives • Functionalism (Comte, Spencer, Durkhiem) • Approach that emphasizes the contributions made by each part of society • Ex. economy, family, government, & religion • A change in one part will effect another • After social upheaval, society will stabilize • Manifest functions- intended and recognized consequences of an aspect of society (x. in school is to learn math) • Latent functions- unintended and unrecognized consequences of an aspect of society (x. in school close friendships) • Dysfunction- negative consequences of an aspect of society (X. bullies, not learning, impersonal)

  20. Come Here!!! Stand behind the strips on the floor facing a partner Persuade your partner, without speaking, to come across to your side One person in each pair will be a winner • Conflict perspective emphasizes competition and the use of power over one group by another • When one group feels powerless in relation to another, conflict exists

  21. Theoretical Perspectives • Conflict theory (Marx) • Approach emphasizing the role of conflict, competition, and constraint within a society • Opposite of functionalist perspective • groups or societies compete as they attempt to preserve and promote their own special values and interests • View social living as a contest; who gets what? • Ppl with the most power get the largest share of what is considered valuable (scarce resources) • After power groups gain control of resources, they est. rules and procedures to protect their interests • Conflict…leads to social change • Social Movements promote change • X. womens’ movement • Gender inequality is created by society, and enforced by family, ed. & religion

  22. Theoretical Perspectives • Symbolic Interactionism (Weber, Blumer) • Focuses on the interactions of people based on mutually understood symbols • Symbol: anything that represents something else (gestures, words, events, objects) all members of society need to agree on the meaning • Basic assumptions • Learn meaning of symbols by watching ppl’s reaction • Base our behavior (interaction) on the meaning of the symbol • Determine how others will respond to the meanings of the symbols based on the meaning of them (internal conversations) • Dramaturgy (Goffman): depicts human interactions as theatrical performances

  23. Changes in America from 1900-2000 4 98% 61% Four Seven 30% 97% 70%

  24. Research Methods The goal of sociological research is to test common sense assumptions and replace false ideas with facts and evidence. • Quantitative research (uses numerical data) • Surveys • Population- a group of people with certain specified characteristics • Sample- group of people that represents a larger population • Representative sample- a sample that accurately reflects the characteristics of the population as a whole • Questionnaire- a written set of questions to be answered by a research participant • Interview- survey method in which a trained researcher asks questions and records the answers • closed-ended questions- choosing from a limited predetermined set of responses/open-ended- answer in your own words • Secondary Analysis (Precollected data)- using precollected information for data collection and research • experiment

  25. Research Methods • Qualitative research (uses narrative and descriptive data) • Field research- takes place in a natural setting • Case study- intensive study of a group, incident, or community • Participant observation- case study where the researcher becomes a member of the group being studied

  26. Research Topics of Study • Cheating… • Cliques… • Bullying… Methods of Study • Survey Questionnaire/Interview • @ least 5 subjects • 3-5 questions • Record personal stats • Case study using participant observation

  27. Causation -The belief that events occur in predictable ways and one event leads to another • Multiple causation- event occurs due to several factors • Variable- characteristic that is subject to change • Quantitative- can be measured numerically • Qualitative- defined by its presence or absence in a category • Independent- causes something to occur (CATCH!) • Dependant- reflects a change • Intervening- changes the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable • Correlation- a measure of the relationship between two variables • Spurious correlation- relationship between two variables that is actually caused by a third factor

  28. Questions, Questions… • Write five questions about society that you would like to see answered. • Include any approach or subject as long as it could be measured and involves social dynamics. • Ex. Do men work harder than women? What are the major differences in the ways teens communicate compared to adults? Look at each question. Write down all of the variables that you would have to examine to begin to research that question.

  29. Procedures and Ethics in Research • Scientific Method • Identify the problem • Review the literature • Formulate a hypothesis • Develop a research design • Collect data • Analyzing data • State findings and conclusions • Ethics