Agricultural Revolutions There are3 of them
What is a Revolution and how can you have a farming revolution? So then What? A revolution is any fundamental change or reversal of conditions, a great and sometimes violent change or innovation
The Neolithic Revolution The Neolithic Revolution (8000BCE-3500BCE) • Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in SW Asia. • Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary.
The Neolithic Revolution Costs & Advantages of Agriculture
The Neolithic Revolution Agriculture Slowly Spreads: What do you notice about the core areas?
The Neolithic Revolution Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate • High starch diets slowly allow • Sedentary populations to grow. • First plow invented c.6000BCE; • crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE. • Pop. grows from 5-8 million to 60-70 million. • Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.
The Open-field System • Cooperative plowing • Conserved the quality of land • Balanced distribution of good land • Farmers were part of a “team” • Gleaning
The Neolithic Revolution First Towns Develop Catal Huyuk Modern Turkey First settled: c. 7000BCE Jericho Modern Israel First settled: c. 7000BCE
So what came after the Neolithic Revolution? ? Oh Yeah! The actual Agricultural Revolution.
Agricultural Revolution 15th and 18th Century Farming
All right,so there was going to be a great change... What exactly was this great change? Great changes, you mean - and innovations All right CHANGES.. First of all, there was enclosure, then there was the new machinery such as the seed drill and horse plough, not to mention marling and selective breeding…..
Enclosures? This meant enclosing the land. The open fields were divided up and everyone who could prove they owned some land would get a share. Dividing the open land into small fields and putting hedges and fences around them. Everyone had their own fields and could use them how they wished.
Enclosure • Before • AFTER • Each landowner received a single piece of property • No common lands
Selective Breeding? Some farmers such as Robert Bakewell and the Culley brothers concentrated on selective breeding. This meant only allowing the fittest and strongest of their cattle, sheep, pigs and horses to mate. You can tell how successful they were: In 1710 the average weight for cattle was 168 Kg by 1795 - it was 363 Kg
What other new ideas were there? Marling Crop rotation Seed drill Publicity New ploughs and hoes
Publicity?! Yeah, books were written on farming. The Board of Agriculture was set up and Arthur Young, the new secretary, went round the country recording the progress of the revolution and others could read his report to find out more. Agricultural shows with competitions were held and people could exchange ideas and see the latest things.
Your tasks 1. Find out about crop rotation, what were the crops and how did they rotate? Who had the idea? 2. Agricultural shows - who had the idea? How did he encourage his tenants to use the new fangled ideas? 3. What is marling? 4. JethroTull - who is he and why is 1701 significant? 5. New ploughs and hoes? How were they different? 6. What is gleaning? 7. How did farming change between 1701 and 1850?
a. Crop Rotation English gentleman farmer Viscount Charles “Turnip” Townsend Alternating grain crops: wheat and barley, with soil enriching crops: turnips and clovers. No longer had to leave land fallow g. Scientific Breeding 1725-1795 Selective breeding of animals Produced more and better animals Produced more milk and meat Some Answers
So first was Neolithic and then it was Agricultural, now what? Ohhhhh….. Green Revolution
(The Third Agricultural Revolution) Starts in 19th Century And Biotechnology THE GREEN REVOLUTION
Adoption of new, improved varieties of grains Application of better agricultural techniques Irrigation Mechanization Use of fertilizer Use of pesticides Since 1950’s Agricultural output outpaced population growth even without adding additional cropland GREEN REVOLUTION A complex of improvements which greatly increased agricultural production
“Green Revolution”benefits • Core exports high-yield “miracle” seeds • Needed oil-based fertilizers, pesticides • Asian rice crop up 66% in 1965-85 • Favored areas with good soil, weather
“Green Revolution”drawbacks • Favored farmers who could afford seeds, • inputs, machines, irrigation • Indebted farmers lost land, moved to cities • New “monocrops” lacked resistance to disease/pests • Environmental contamination, erosion • Oriented to export “cash crops,” not domestic food
Biotechnology continues to change agriculture. I guess during the Green Revolution, biotechnologies started to advance agriculture.
Biotechnology: Using organisms to… • Make or modify products • Improve plants or animals • Develop new microorganisms • Crossing natural divides between species • Not just crossbreeding
Biotechnologybenefits in agriculture • Increase yields • Increase pest resistance • Grow crops in new areas
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) Consumer concerns began in Europe, now in U.S. too
Biotechnologydrawbacks in agriculture • High costs (available to few) • Monocrops have less tolerance to disease • Possible health effects • Contamination of wild crops (“superweeds”) • Corporate patents on life forms
San Francisco Farmers’ Market
Minneapolis airport flower stand