REVOLUTIONS • THE ENGLISH REVOLUTION, OR GLORIOUS REVOLUTION, 1688-1689 • THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1775-1783 • THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, 1789-1799 • THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION, 1791-1804 • LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS, 1808-1825
GPS • SSWH14 The student will analyze the Age of Revolutions and Rebellions. • b. Identify the causes and results of the revolutions in England (1689), United States (1776), France (1789), Haiti (1791), and Latin America (1808-1825).
ENGLISH REVOLUTION, 1689 • AKA, Glorious Revolution, also called Revolution of 1688, or Bloodless Revolution • In English history, the events of 1688–89 that resulted in the overthrow of James II, STUART DYNASTY • RESULT: accession (rise) of his daughter Mary II and her husband, William III, prince of Orange and stadholder of the Netherlands, as KING AND QUEEN OF ENGLAND.
CAUSES • 1. JAMES II-RCC AND APPOINTED RCC TO POSITIONS • 2. SECOND WIFE-SON, WHO WOULD BE HEIR AND RCC-ENGLISH PROTESTANTS OPPOSED RCC AND SUCCESSORS • 3. PROTESTANTS ASKED MARY, JAMES II’S DAUGHTER, AND HER HUSBAND, WILLIAM OF ORANGE, KING IN NETHERLANDS AND PROTESTANT, TO BE KING • 4. IDEAS OF ENLIGHTENMENT
RESULTS • 1. WILLIAM AND MARY BECOME KING AND QUEEN (WILLIAM II AND MARY 11) • 2. ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS SIGNED. • 3. END OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN ENGLAND • 4. BEGINNING OF LIMITED CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
5. RULE BY BRITISH PARLIAMENT, GOVERNING BODY • SPECIFICS • A. no suspending of Parliament's laws • B. no levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament • C. no interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament • D. no penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances • E. MORE DEMOCRACY IN ENGLAND, UK
THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1775-1783 • The Revolutionary War; The War for American Independence • political upheaval in which the thirteen British colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America • ENGLAND VS. BRITISH AMERICAN COLONIES: COLONIES WIN! RESULT: USA • “The shot heard ‘round the world”, Battles of Lexington and Concord, Mass., 1775 • The colonies rejected the authority of the British Parliament and King George III.
CAUSES • The American Revolution was the result of a series of social, political, and intellectual transformations in American society, government, and ways of thinking
CAUSES • 1 Effects of the French & Indian War (WAR BETWEEN FR AND UK OVER N. AMERICA…TRADE, LAND, RESOURCES, ETC.) • 2 Proclamation of 1763, NO SETTLEMENT WEST OF APPALACHIAN MTNS. • 3 IDEAS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT, The Rise of Liberalism (political philosophy centered on the unalienable rights of the individual, such as liberal ideals of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religionand Republicanism (ELECTED GOVT AND RULE OF LAW, SOVEREIGNTY IN THE PEOPLE AND NOT THE MONARCH) • 4 TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION!
RESULTS • 1. Treaty of Paris 1783, Treaty that ended the American Revolution • a. What did the Treaty of Paris 1783 say? • 1) The English colonies in British North America are independent from England • 2) New nation: United States of America. • 3) The treaty created the borders for the U.S.A.; which were!! • North – to the Great Lakes • South – to, but not including, Florida • West – to the Mississippi River • East – to the Atlantic Ocean • SEE WEBSITE ON EXPANSION OF USA
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION • 1 Period of radical social and political unrest, upheaval in France • 2 The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed within three years • 3 French society underwent an epic transformation as aristocratic and religious privileges stopped under a sustained assault from radical political groups, masses on the streets, and peasants in the countryside • “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times…” Charles Dickens, A TALE OF TWO CITIES
Old ideas about tradition and hierarchy–of monarchy, aristocracy, and religious authority–were abruptly overthrown • Enlightenment principles of equality, citizenship, and inalienable (cannot be taken away) rights began
1ST ESTATE 2ND ESTATE 3RD ESTATE SOCIETY IN FRANCE, THE OLD REGIME
What Is the Third Estate? • French thinker and clergyman Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès said this: • “What is the Third Estate? Everything. • What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. • What does it ask? To become something. ’’
The dominance of the First and Second Estates in the political arena constitutes a monopoly that treats the Third Estate unfairly. • He advocates equal representation of all three orders in government, and asserts that taxes and government policy should affect all portions of society equally!!! • SLOGAN, FR. REV: “ LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY” (BROTHERHOOD)
Causes of the French Revolution • 1 ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS, more political freedom, equality, liberty, freedom of the individual, democracy, freedom of speech, attack RCC, “Declaration of the Rights of Man…” • 2 DEBT • FROM: • 1)WARS: 7 YEARS( FR. AND INDIAN), AMERICAN REVOLUTION • 2)EXPENSES FROM MONARCHY, LOUIS 14, 15, 16 • 3 HEAVY TAXATION, ESP. ON 3RD ESTATE; the system also exempted the nobles and the clergy from taxes • 4 FAILURE OF REFORMS RELATED TO DEBT AND TAXES
5 FAMINE, decreased food harvests, conspiracy theories, “little ice age”
http://www.history.com/videos/origins-of-the-french-revolution#origins-of-the-french-revolutionhttp://www.history.com/videos/origins-of-the-french-revolution#origins-of-the-french-revolution • http://www.history.com/topics/french-revolution/videos#the-french-revolution
RESULTS: FRENCHREVOLUTION • 1. END OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHY, LIMITED MONARCH, THEN REPUBLIC • 2. REPUBLICAN GOVT IN FR • 3. POLITICAL AND SOCIAL REFORMS-MORE EQUAL FRENCH SOCIETY WITH NO PRIVILEGE • 4. SPREAD OF ENLIGHTENED IDEAS (#3) ESP. NATURAL RIGHTS AND “CONNECTIONS” • 5. FRENCH CONSTITUTIONS WHICH CREATED MORE DEMOCRACY AND MALE SUFFRAGE (RIGHT TO VOTE)
RESULTS • 6. IMPROVED STATUS OF WOMEN • 7. MORE FREE ECONOMY
AMERICAN 1. INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-IDENTIFICATION 2. ANTI-BRITISH PARLIAMENT, LESS ANTI-KING 3. SOCIAL CLASS SYSTEM NOT A MAJOR CONCERN; SLAVERY HAD BEEN ABOLISHED IN MOST NORTHERN STATES 4. RELIGION NOT AN ISSUE 5. GOVT GOAL: PRESERVE LIFE, LIBERTY, PROPERTY COMMON GOAL ACHIEVED BY BOTH REVOLUTIONS: LIBERTY! FRENCH 1. ESTABLISHED NATION; TRANSFORMATION OF SOCIETY 2. ANTI-KING! ABUSE OF POWER 3. SOCIAL CLASSES (ESTATES) ELIMINATED; NO PRIVILEGE (MAIN GOAL OF REVOLUTION) 4. REDUCE POWER OF RCC 5. GOVT GOAL: PRESERVE LIBERTY, EQUALITY, FRATERNITY (BROTHERHOOD) COMPARISONREVOLUTIONSAMERICAN AND FRENCH
Haitian Revolution • 1791–1804 • 1775-1783, AMERICAN REV. • 1789-1799, FRENCH REV. • slave revolt in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, HAITI • RESULT: end of slavery there and founding of country of Haiti
The Haitian Revolution was the only slave revolt which led to the founding of a country • the American Revolution… USA • The Haitian Revolution… HAITI • permanent independence from a European colonial power for an American country before the 19th century
LEADERS • Toussaint L'Ouverture • Jean Jacques Dessalines
The Latin American Wars of Independence • Revolutions, 18th and early 19th centuries • Result: creation of many independent countries in Latin America • These revolutions followed the American and French Revolutions, which had profound effects on the Spanish, Portuguese and French colonies in the Americas • Haiti, a French slave colony, was the first to follow the United States to independence, during the Haitian Revolution
SIMON BOLIVAR LEADERS
1769-1821 NAPOLEON BONAPARTE
1 French military and political leader 2 RISE to power during the latter stages of the French Revolution 3 Napoleon I, Emperor of the French 1804 to 1815 4 born in Corsica in a family of noble Italian ancestry 5 TRAINED IN MILITARY A LIFETIME WITH ACCOMPLISHMENTS ALL OVER EUROPE CORSICA 1799, coup d'état (OVERTHROW OF GOVT, THE DIRECTORY) First Consul; five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor, following a plebiscite (VOTE) in his favor
established hegemony (control) over most of continental Europe and sought to spread the ideals of the French Revolution: NAPOLEONIC WARS, 1804-1815 • maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states • The Peninsular War (SPAIN AND COASTAL AREA) and 1812 French invasion of Russia: turning points for Napoleon • The Grande Armée was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered. • 1814, DEFEATED, FORCED TO ABDICATE (GIVE UP THRONE) AND EXILED TO ISLAND OF ELBA
1815, ESCAPED, RETURNED (100 DAYS) • FINALLY DEFEATED AT WATERLOO, BELGIUM • EXILED TO ST. HELENA • DIED 1821