Aim: How has geography affected human development? Vocabulary: The bolded words in this slide show.
Where are we? Room 411
Label: The 7 continents The 4 Oceans Identify the following regions: South Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Southwest Asia (The Middle East), Central Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Latin America, Oceania
The "Old Way" of Thinking • Geographic Determinism-Geography was the primary force behind a society’s development.
Just to clear things up… • Geography IS really important and it DOES impact people and their development… • But did the Inca starve to death because they didn’t have flat land to farm on? No! • So you see, geographic conditions don’t always prevail… http://coe.fgcu.edu/students/webb/meso/inca.htm
The Human Impact on the Environment • Resource consumption and • Resource extraction • Producing pollution • Forest clearing • Irrigation • Agriculture • Mining How do these activities demonstrate That humans shaped their environment?
Oceans, Seas, and Rivers • Before the world was industrialized, water transport was an easier, cheaper, and better method of travel than overland. • Rivers provided food (fish) and water to drink. • Rivers were crucial in the development of agriculture and the establishment of cities. • Rivers allowed for the movement of people and goods (resulting in cultural diffusion), and connected communities to each other.
Arctic Ocean • Extremely difficult to navigate because it is packed in ice most of the year. • Early European explorers sought the Northwest Passage but it is barely usable.
Indian Ocean • The Harappans sailed through one of its seas, the Arabian Sea, to trade with Sumer. • Malay sailors, Chinese, Muslim, and European traders used the ocean’s monsoon winds to guide them. • Africans also traded via this ocean. • Commercial rivalries between the Dutch, Portuguese, and Muslim sailors in the 17th century.
Atlantic Ocean • Columbus’ voyages caused a lot of exchange between the Eastern and Western hemispheres. • Encounters between Europeans, Americans, and Africans. • The Mediterranean, joined to the Atlantic, was important to Middle Eastern and Greco-Roman civilizations.
Pacific Ocean • World’s largest ocean. • Ancient Polynesians came to Oceania. • Societies of East and Southeast Asia used the Sea of Japan and the South China and East China Seas. • World Wars used the Pacific islands for strategic purposes. Painting Tahitian Women on the Beach by Paul Gauguin-Musee d’Orsay Image-wikipedia
The Middle East is at the “crossroads of three continents: Europe, Africa, and Asia. This region is about twice the size of the United States. There are two strategic waterways in the Middle East: The Suez Canal (connecting Europe to South Asia) and the Dardanelles and Bosporus Straits connecting the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea. http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/middleeast.html
The lack of natural barriers in the Fertile Crescent enabled migrations and invasions. • The diversity of the people in the Fertile Crescent made it difficult to unite them into a single nation. • The Fertile Crescent has also become known as the “cradle of civilization.” • Mesopotamia was in the eastern end of the Fertile Crescent (modern day Iraq). Historyforkids.org
Major Geographic Features Of Africa Google Images
Let's Play! Africa http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/African_Geography.htm Geography Quizzes - Fun Map http://www.topix.net/who/regis-philbin
Deserts • The Sahara Desert is the world’s largest desert. • The Sahara separated the people who lived north and south of it. • People south of the Sahara became fairly isolated from Europe and Asia while people north of it have been part of the Mediterranean world.
The Sahara Desert can get as hot as 130 degrees Fahrenheit! Sahara Desert Erfoud, Morocco (Late afternoon-sand dunes) http://www.maion.com/photography/morocco/dunes_pictures.html Rand McNally Intermediate Geography and Map Activities
Tropical Rain Forests • High temperatures and heavy rains • Barrier to communication and transportation • Deserts and Rain Forests have made Africa not as densely populated as other continents • Hindered Africa’s economic development http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/rainforest/Where.shtml
Rivers • The Nile River is the longest River spanning about 4,000 miles. Until 2004 no one had navigated its entire length! • Many African rivers are too dangerous to travel because of rapids and falls. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/outlinemaps/ Rand McNally Geography
The Nile River http://touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4a.htm
Danger Ahead! Some of Africa’s rivers are very dangerous to travel because of the rapids and falls (Victoria Falls located on the Zambezi River, the Mutarazi Falls in Zimbabwe, and the Tugela Falls and Mpumalanga Falls- both in South Africa) Victoria Falls (Zimbabwe) http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/zw.htm
Hymn to the Nile • "Hail to you Hapy, Sprung from earth, Come to nourish Egypt…Food provider, bounty maker, Who creates all that is good!…Conqueror of the Two Lands, He fills the stores, Makes bulge the barns, Gives bounty to the poor." (from the Middle Kingdom [2040-1640 BCE] hymn as translated by Lichtheim) http://touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4a.htm
Importance of the Nile Hapi • People in Egypt settled along the Nile River • Provided water for drinking and irrigation • Annual floods left rich deposits of silt that kept agricultural land fertile • Highway for travel • People prayed in pre dynastic times to Osiris (later known as Hapi) for sustenance • http://touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4a.htm
Coastline • Africa has a long coastline that spans thousands of miles. • The continent, however, lacks natural harbors where ships can enter and leave a port. • This has made trade with others difficult. Cia.gov
Savanna • A large part of sub-Saharan Africa is savanna. • Most African communities and most wildlife are situated there. The distribution of fertile and infertile savannas in Africa. Dark-shaded areas are broad-leaf, nutrient-poor, savannas; striped areas are fine-leaf, nutrient-rich savannas. http://worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/bw.htm http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/bas/Models/Africamap.html
Climate • Much of sub-Saharan Africa is near the equator and has hot summers and warm winters. • Deserts receive too little rain for agriculture while rain forests get too much. A striking African woman uses cream made from ground bark to provide moisturizing protection from Mozambique Island's equatorial sun. http://plasma.nationalgeographic.com/places/photos/photo_mozambique_mozambique.html
Resources What kinds of natural resources can be found in Africa? http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/m6/natural_resources.html
Think about it… Why do you think natural resources have been both good and bad for Africa’s development?
The Major Geographic Features Of Latin America
Where is Latin America? • Geographically speaking, Latin America is South America and the Caribbean (West Indies). • Culturally speaking, Latin America includes Mexico well. • Geographically, however, Mexico is part of North America.
Andes Mountains • The Andes have isolated South America for much of its history. • The Inca used terrace farming to grow food along the Andes Mountains. • The Andes acted as a geographic barrier, and hindered attempts to unify people in Latin America. http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/southamerica_ref802636_1999.jpg
Climate • Much of Latin America is near the equator but high altitudes and winds keep it from being too hot. • More people live in higher altitudes where the temperatures are comfortable. • The tropical West Indian climate enables the production of sugar. • For this reason African slaves were brought to Latin America.
Mountain Areas Countries included 1. Andes Mountains Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina. 2. Brazilian Highlands Mountain areas in the Northeast, Southwest and South. 3. Central American Highlands Countries of Central America. 4. Sierra Madres and Mexican Highlands Mountain areas of the Sierra Madres (3), ranges and highland areas of the Pacific coast. 5. Caribbean Sierras and highlands Countries of the Caribbean and island territories. Box 1: Physical Geography of Latin America Because of their altitude, mountains regulate local climates and determine climatic conditions creating special biospheres and ecosystems that impact directly on medium- and low-lying areas. The geomorphologic and terrestrial structure of these areas renders them unstable. They also include areas of water catchments, which determine water quality and supply and thus influence the maintenance of local production capacity and the quality of life of local inhabitants. The mountain areas have a wide array of ecosystems, in addition to mineral and forest resources that can be exploited in many ways. Their natural beauty also makes them attractive to tourism and for recreational activities. http://www.fao.org/docrep/meeting/x4442e.htm
Grassland Plains • Latin America’s poor soils and mountains make farming difficult. • That is why the grassland plains of the pampas of Argentina and the Llanos of Venezuela are highly valued. They are the most agriculturally productive lands in South America. http://www.venezuelatuya.com/llanos/index.htm
THE AMAZON RAIN FOREST • Rain Forests have served as a barrier to transportation and communication. • For this reason they cause cultures to develop separately. • The Amazon rainforest is the largest in the world. • It is extremely hot, humid, and of course, rainy. • There are more species of plants and animals in the Amazon rain forest than any other place in the world! Rand McNally Intermediate Geography And Map Activities http://www.junglephotos.com/amazon/amscenery/forest/foresttrail.shtml
RAINFORESTWILDLIFE Rainforest Wildlife JAGUAR SQUIRRELMONKEY ANACONDA http://www.junglephotos.com/amazon/amscenery/forest/foresttrail.shtml
World’s second longest river (2,300 miles long) The Amazon carries a larger volume of water than the Nile because of the water from the rainforests. The Amazon flows from the Andes Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean. Most cities in Latin America developed on the Atlantic coast where they could trade with Europe. Amazon River Map showing the course of the Amazon, selected tributaries, and the approximate extent of its drainage area Wikipedia