Measurement and Modeling of Fugitive Dust from Off-road DoD Activities Project Number (SI-1767) Larry Wagner USDA-ARS-EWERU Brief to the Scientific Advisory Board March 2, 2010
Performers Dr. Michael Wojcik and Dr. Robert Foltynowicz Energy Dynamics Laboratory Remote sensing, lidar aerosol detection and laser system design Dr. John Tatarko, Dr. Mark Casada and Dr. Larry Hagen USDA-ARS Engineering and Wind Erosion Research Unit Soil characterization, grain dust emissions and wind erosion mechanics Dr. Ronaldo Maghirang and Dr. James Steichen Bio. and Ag. Engineering Department, Kansas State University Modeling and control of air emissions from feedlots Kori Moore and Kimberly Cook Energy Dynamics Laboratory PhD and MS students in Environmental Engineering, Utah State Univ. Dr. Philip Woodford Fort Riley ITAM Coordinator
Problem Statement • DoD conducts off-road military training and testing activities that can create significant air quality challenges and have the potential to negatively impact local and regional air quality.
Technical Objectives • Improve understanding of fugitive dust emission potential of soils from off-road military activities. • Determine impact of quantity and duration of activity, as well as military vehicle type, on wind erosion and fugitive dust generation potential. • Characterize relevant soil and surface properties to measure fugitive dust emission and wind erosion potential. • Determine recovery time of disturbed training lands with respect to wind erosion emission potential. • Obtain parameters and develop algorithms to simulate military vehicle disturbance impacts on the soil/surface state. • Improve DoD’s ability to achieve source compliance and ambient fence-line monitoring for fugitive dust emissions at their installations. • Develop and test a prototype, eye-safe, PM sensing lidar, suitable for monitoring fence-line dust concentration levels.
Technical Background • Test • Test • Test • sdfs • Improve DoD’s ability to achieve source compliance and ambient fence-line monitoring for fugitive dust emissions at their installations. • Large area monitoring with point sensors is impractical and expensive • Eye-safe lidar systems are currently large and very expensive • New fiber laser technologies open the door for compact eyesafe transmitters • New APD array detectors open the door for fast NIR receivers
Task 1 Assessment of Wind Erosion Potential from Off-road Vehicle Activity Task 3a Improved Technologies or Active Fence-line Monitoring of Fugitive Dust Emissions Technical Approach Task 1a Pre & Post military vehicle traffic site susceptibility survey on undisturbed off-road sites Optical & soil physical properties measurements • Develop CELiS for SERDP monitoring • Define system requirements • Full system conceptual design Task 1b Laboratory wind tunnel experiments on samples obtained from Task 1a disturbed and undisturbed sites Task 1c Ongoing soil and vegetation recovery survey of disturbed sites selected from Task 1a Fabricate and bench test a CELiS unit DRI/PNNL joint field test exercise Large area, in situ, size segregated measurement of particle deposition dynamics Field test and calibrate CELiS at an existing DRI campaign site using Aglite as a primary calibration standard Task 1d Update WEPS management module and operation database for off-road vehicle traffic EXIT CRITERIA: Working demonstration unit of an eye-safe fence-line monitor SISON Objective Served: 3a EXIT CRITERIA: Updated WEPS model for military vehicle traffic input Wind erosion susceptibility parameters for use in WEPS SISON Objective Served: 1a SISON-10-03 Objectives Served: 1a and 3a
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Technical Approach Develop a flow chart for the entire research project showing the major activities and the intellectual flow of the proposed project. This will provide both an overview and a point of reference for the remainder of the technical approach slides that follow. The “Tasks” can, but do not have to, match to the formal tasks in your proposal. This chart, coupled with those that follow, should take about half of your allotted presentation time and clearly/concisely explain how you will execute your project. [Estimated time spent on Technical Approach section:10-12 minutes]
Task 1a Pre- and post vehicle soil disturbance measurements will be conducted on selected sites at cooperating DoD installations • Measurements will first be taken at Ft. Riley and later at additional DoD installations in concert with DRI’s SERDP funded proposal. • Two or more soil types (locations) will be selected at each installation based upon their perceived or known vulnerability to wind erosion and potential to generate high vehicle dust emissions. • A minimum of one tracked and one wheeled vehicle will be used at each DoD installation for generating soil disturbances. • At least two vehicle speeds will be investigated and up to five subsequent passes will be made at each site on some experimental plots. • Each plot will be replicated three times, if possible.
Task 1a Pre- and post vehicle soil disturbance measurements will be conducted on selected sites at cooperating DoD installations • To reduce redundant data collection and to better correlate measurements across the individual tasks: • Some site plots will be additionally sampled for the laboratory wind tunnel studies outlined in task 1b. • The longer term field studies (task 1c) will also be carried out on a subset of these task 1a site plot locations.
Task 1a Pre- and post vehicle soil disturbance measurements will be conducted on selected sites at cooperating DoD installations • Measurements to be taken are: • Soil intrinsic properties • Soil temporal properties • Soil surface properties • Surface vegetative/residue properties • Need picture of surface here and possibly pictures of sieves, PI-SWERL, laser scanner, etc.
Task 1b Characterize relevant temporal and intrinsic soil and surface properties, via laboratory wind tunnel tray studies, to measure total dust as well as PM10 emission potential on a range of off-road disturbed and undisturbed military land soils. • Measurements to be taken are: • Soil intrinsic properties • Soil temporal properties • Soil surface properties • Surface vegetative/residue properties • Need picture of surface here and possibly pictures of sieves, PI-SWERL, laser scanner, etc.
CELiS fenceline Task 3a CELiS CONOPS CELiS and an optical particle counter are deployed downwind from vehicle operations. • “Stare” mode or 2D scan mode will measure dust concentrations • OPC provides real time calibration • Assume constant size distribution, specific to soil type and operation type 2D scan mode 1D “stare” mode
Task 3a The building blocks of CELiS Mulitwave Photonics 1550 nm micropulse laser, 20 kHz, 25 mJ/pulse Commercial telescope Commercial pan-tilt stage Optical Particle Counter 1.5 mm wavelength APD Inexpensive laptop
Year 1 Project Plan • Indicate the funding required for each specific Task to be conducted in year 1 of your project. The Tasks should mirror your Milestones for the first year of your proposal. • EXAMPLE: • Characterize the pathways for degradation of XXX $100K • Perform kinetics studies of each of the pathways $100K • Determine the degradation end products using NMR, mass $100K • spectroscopy and quantitative analysis • TOTAL $300K [Estimated time spent on slide: 15 seconds]
Year 2 TASK 1* TASK 2 TASK 3 TASK 4 TASK 5 TASK 6 TASK 7 Year 1 Overall Project Plan Provide a Gantt chart that illustrates how the project tasks are expected to be executed over the required timeframe. GO/NO GO Decision: If appropriate, define a GO/NO GO decision point in the multi-year program. Include a brief statement as to the nature of the decision point and the criteria for success. * Tasks should be identified by descriptive titles and should mirror the milestones in your proposal. [Estimated time spent on slide: 15 seconds]
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total SERDP $K 100 100 100 300 Army $K 100 100 100 300 XYZ Corp $K 100 100 100 300 Project Funding This slide shows the total SERDP funding required by Year, as well as any leveraged funding that you may have, including in-kind support. If there are no leveraged funds, then there will only be a “SERDP” column on this chart. [Estimated time spent on slide: 15 seconds]
Deliverables • Identify the tangible results of the work. Include both interim and final products. Examples might include: • Larry 1 • Larry 2 • Larry 3 • A full CELiS system design • A working prototype of CELiS • 6 peer reviewed articles • 1 PhD, 1 MS, and 2 undergrad students (Utah State University) [Estimated time spent on slide: <1 minute]
Backup Slides Supporting material to be used in response anticipated SAB questions AND Responses to peer review and program office comments
CELiS Heritage Aglite WiLD
Backup Slides Provide any additional technical supporting information that may help in answering SAB questions EXAMPLES: • Supporting data from previous or preliminary work • Details on specific techniques or instruments to be used
Reviewer Comments Comment Reviewer 169: Task 3a-c are very ambitious but are described in very general terms. Converting lidar backscatter to aerosol mass and size distribution is far from trivial, and lidars are of course relatively costly… require specialized operators. Is this system…more fit for purpose than transmissometers? Removal of this task would… substantially reduce project costs. Comment Reviewer 10454: The timeline may be a little optimistic… The modeling aspect may take longer as the validation of VAEPRS model may be delayed…The budget seems to be more skewed toward field testing… however, the modeling portion of the budget may be underestimated. Response: The scope of this task was substantially reduced, eliminating VAEPRS and eliminating the integrated meteorology measurements. The CELiS lidar will be engineered and packaged specifically for a technician level operator and will be as turnkey as possible. A lidar system provides range-resolved concentration information, while a transmissometer provides only total path obscuration – extracting concentration from a transmissometer takes careful calibration. The appropriate budget modifications have been made to reflect the new balance of work.
Transition Plan Identify how you will transition this research into Demonstration/Validation and final field use. This can be accomplished through Service or ESTCP funding or through commercialization with a private industry partner. Identify your effort to include the DoD and/or DOE user community in your research to assure user community “buy in” of the final product. • EDL has a close relationship with the remote sensing group at Dugway Proving Ground. • We have provided technical support for lidar system fabrication and operation for 4+ years • DPG operates 4 different lidar systems • Developmental testing of CELiS will occur at DPG • EDL has a growing list of licensed technologies • Venture capitalist buy-in for $4M for a water scrubber full development cycle • Some units going into production this year. (Purestream) • VC has approached EDL to develop technology for carbon market, carbon cap & trade economy