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  1. Guilt-Free Chocolate... Chocolate Manufacturing and Food Processing

  2. Learning Objectives • By the end of this lesson students will • be able to describe the industrial process for chocolate manufacture from “bean to bar” • be able to identify economic and political issues involved in the trade of cacao • be able to identify major chocolate manufacturing companies • be able to identify benefits of sustainable cocoa cultivation • be able to list some Good Manufacturing Practices for food handling

  3. Learning about Chocolate • History of Chocolate • Economics of Chocolate • Engineering of Chocolate • EPSI: Chocolate Cookie Project www.chocolateandcocoa.org

  4. Chocolate Manufacturers Association “CMA's mission is to serve as the voice of the American chocolate industry and through research, education and public information, works to ensure a continued supply of cocoa and increased consumption of high value and quality chocolate products for the American people.” www.chocolateandcocoa.org

  5. ADM Cocoa http://www.admworld.com/products/cocoa.htm Barry Callebaut USA, Inc. http://www.barry-callebaut.com/ Blommer Chocolate Company http://www.blommer.com/ Guittard Chocolate Company http://www.guittard.com/ Hershey Foods Corporation http://www.hersheys.com M&M/MARS http://global.mms.com/us/index.jsp Nestle Chocolate & Confections http://www.nestle.com/ World's Finest Chocolate http://www.worldsfinestchocolate.com/ Wilbur Chocolate, a Cargill Foods Company http://www.wilburchocolate.com/index.html

  6. Chocolate world • The cocoa plant is scientifically named Theobroma cacao. • Theobroma -- Greek word: 'food of the gods' • cacao -- from Aztec word: cacahuatl. • Toltecs, Mayas, and Aztecs first enjoyed the fruit of the divine cocoa tree. • Spain and Italy helped introduce the cocoa bean to the rest of the world. • “Today cocoa is an international trading commodity” Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

  7. History of Chocolate 1519 -- Conquistidor, Don Hernan Cortez took cocoa from Mexico to Spain 1606 -- Francesco Carletti brought cocoa from Central America to Italy 1825 -- Cocoa press invented in Holland by Van Houten 1828 -- Alkalization process invented 1875 -- First milk chocolate produced www.chocolateandcocoa.org

  8. Cocoa Producing Countries Near the equator, high T and high humidity Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

  9. Cocoa producers • Amazon basin • 20% of world Cocoa is from Central and South America • Phillipines and West Indies • 17th and 18th Centuries • West Africa • 19th Century • Ivory Coast & Nigeria

  10. Chocolate Consumers Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

  11. From Crops to Commodity • Grow cocoa trees for 4 months • Open and skin fruit • Harvest beans • Ferment on banana leaves • microbes feed on sugar and pulp on beans • beans turn brown • Dried and turned for 14 days • Sampled for Quality • Shipped and traded on international market

  12. Open Do not integrate chocolate in to their own products Cargill ADM Barry Callebaut Captive Produce chocolate for their own products Cadbury Nestle Kraft Jacobs Suchard Markets for Cocoa Beans Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

  13. Economics of Cocoa • Small Farms -- 90% of world cocoa on 5-10 acre farms • Market price impacts plant quality • Challenges with pests and disease impact market. http://www.candyusa.org/CocoaTree/sustain.htm

  14. Trading Cocoa • Supply and Outlook -- Ivory Coast produces the most cocoa. Weather issues during harvesting will increase the price of cocoa futures. • http://www.chocolateandcocoa.org/Supply/supplyindex.htm • Demand -- Most cocoa is consumed in the U.S. and Europe, but Asian countries are beginning to import cocoa. • http://www.chocolateandcocoa.org/Supply/demand_prices.htm

  15. Political Issues • The IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank, have attempted to help poor countries with international debts by altering the world cocoa market. • Recently, Ivory Coast opted for “liberalization” removing government controls on the cocoa market. A power struggle over control of the market ensued. • Issues of slavery, child slavery, and child labor in the Ivory Coast cocoa industries continue to worry chocolate manufacturers.

  16. Dealing with Slavery... “Persuaded by anti-slavery groups and the threat of U.S. legislation, chocolate manufacturers [in 2001] endorsed a four-year plan to identify and address instances of abusive child labor in cocoa-growing countries in West Africa. They signed a protocol, which sets a series of deadlines through 2005 to lay groundwork for monitoring and remedying abusive forms of child labor in those countries.”

  17. Guilt-Free Chocolate... From Bean to Bar Chocolate Manufacturing and Food Processing

  18. Clean and inspect beans -- de-dusted de-stoned passed through metal detector Roast beans sterilizes and adds aroma Break beans and grind “nibs” separate nibs and shells sizing and milling Prepare cocoa mass Squeeze out cocoa butter Fine Rolling cocoa mass + sugar = dark chocolate batter cocoa mass + sugar + milk= milk chocolate batter Conching Kneading machine removes water and acid add fat and cocoa butter pump to storage tanks Tempering heat treatment brings cocoa butter to stable crystal form “Bean to Bar” Process

  19. Watch Chocolate Processing... • Note Major Pieces of Equipment • Note Safety Issues in the Facilities • What household items, analogous to the processing equipment, would enable you to make your own personal chocolate? http://www.candyusa.org/CocoaTree/index.htm

  20. Brainstorm • List food-handling considerations in your home? • How might these principles be implemented on an industrial scale?

  21. Good Manufacturing Practices GMP -- regulations developed by the FDA under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Require that “manufacturers, processors, and packagers of drugs, medical devices, some food, and blood take proactive steps to ensure that their products are safe, pure, and effective.” GMP regulations address issues including recordkeeping, personnel qualifications, sanitation, cleanliness, equipment verification, process validation, and complaint handling. http://www.gmp1st.com/gmp.htm

  22. Elements of GMP • “The plant management shall take all reasonable measures and precautions to ensure the following:” • Disease Control • Cleanliness • Education and Training • Supervision

  23. GMP -- Cleanliness • “Wearing outer garments that protect against the contamination of food, food-contact surfaces, or food packaging materials.” • “Maintaining adequate personal cleanliness.” • “Washing hands thoroughly (and sanitizing if necessary)” • “Removing all unsecured jewelry and other objects that might fall into food” • “Maintaining gloves, if they are used in food handling, in an intact, clean, and sanitary condition” • “Wearing, where appropriate, in an effective manner, hair nets, headbands, caps, beard covers, or other effective hair restraints”

  24. GMP -- Cleanliness • “Storing clothing or other personal belongings in areas other than where food is exposed or where equipment or utensils are washed.” • “Confining the following to areas other than where food may be exposed or where equipment or utensils are washed: eating food, chewing gum, drinking beverages, or using tobacco.” • “Taking any other necessary precautions to protect against contamination of food, with microorganisms or foreign substances including, but not limited to, perspiration, hair, cosmetics, tobacco, chemicals, and medicines applied to the skin.”

  25. Coating Cookies with Chocolate EPSI Team Project http://www.wilburchocolate.com/docs/applications/bakery/chocolate_coatings.html

  26. EPSI -- Cookie Coating Project • Coat cookies with chocolate. • Estimate average and standard deviation of cookie mass, before and after coating. • Estimate average and standard deviation of the coating thickness. • Calculate nutritional value of the new cookie product, including an ingredient list. • Write a report of your project activities. • Present your project results in class.

  27. Available equipment and supplies • Cookies, chocolate chips, chocolate almond bark • Bowls, trays, wax paper, and kitchen utensils • Microwaves • Kitchen scales and calipers • Refrigerator

  28. Project Assignments