(Chapter 1) Hazardous Waste Managementإدارة النفايات الخطرة Prof. Dr. Nizam M. El-Ashgar
What is A Hazardous Material? There Are Many Various Definitions Of What A Hazardous Materials Is. • Hazardous Materials, HM: Any Substance Or Material In Any Form Or Quantity That Poses An Unreasonable Riskخطر غير معقول To Safety And Health And Property When Transported In Commerce (Source: U.S. Department Of Transportation [DOT]) أي مادة في أي شكل أو كمية تنطوي على خطر غير معقول على السلامة والصحة والممتلكات عند نقلها في الامور التجارية • Hazardous Substances , HS: Any Substance As Posing A Threat To Waterways And The Environment When Released (Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA]). أي مادة تشكل تهديدا للممرات المائية والبيئة عند انطلاقها
Extremely Hazardous Substances, EHS: Chemicals Determined By The EPA To Be Extremely Hazardous To A Community During An Emergency Spill Or Release As A Result Of Their Toxicities And Physical/Chemical Properties (EPA). هي المواد الكيميائية المحددة من قبل وكالة حماية البيئة بأنها شديدة الخطورة على المجتمع خلال انسكابها الطارئ أو انطلاقها بسبب سميتها وخواصها الفيزيائية / و الكيميائية . • Hazardous Chemicals, HC: Any Chemical That Would Be A Risk To Employees If Exposed In The Workplace (Source: Occupational Safety and Health Administration -OSHA). أي مادة كيميائية من شأنها أن تكون خطرا على الموظفين إذا تعرضوا لها في مكان العمل
General definition: of a Hazardous Material: A hazardous material is any substance, chemical, or mixture of chemicals which can harm the body, either at the time of exposure or later. These materials may be in the form of a solid, liquid, gas or vapor, dust, fume, or mistضبابand may be either a physical hazard or a health hazard. • Physical Hazards: Physical hazards associated with a material run the gamutسلسلة متدرجةfrom minor injury, such as burns, to major injury, such as from an explosion. Examples of chemicals presenting a physical hazard are compressed gases, oxidizers, flammables, and unstable or reactive materials. • Health Hazards: The extent to which a substance will cause harmful health effects is called the toxicity of that substance.
The degree of health hazard depends on several factors: • Chemical Makeup:Certain substances are inherently متأصلmore hazardous than others because of their chemical ingredients or structure. • Amount: How much of a substance an individual is exposed to (the DOSE) affects the degree of hazard. • Type of contact:Substances can enter the body through the skin, eyes, lungs, or oral routes. Each of these routes of entry may cause a different effect. • Length of exposure:For some substances, short-term exposure may cause no effect, but long-term exposure may be harmful. • Chemical combinations:Often two or more chemicals react with each other to produce new substances, with health effect different from the original chemicals. They can be more hazardous. In some cases, the health effects of two substances in combination can be much greater than the combined effects of each chemical acting alone. This effect is called synergismتآزر. • Personal Susceptibility القابلية:Individuals may have personal traits سمات which put them at risk. These can include diet, smoking, sensitizationهضمية حسساسية or allergyمناعية حساسية, and pregnancy الحمل.
Health Effects of Hazardous Chemicals Common terms and concepts used in discussing health effects of hazardous chemicals are presented in this section which should help with interpretation of information found on a SDS. • Acute and Chronic Effects: • Acute effects:are symptoms that show up soon after a single exposure to a chemical, and include rashes, burns, headaches, and nausea الطفح الجلدي، والحروق، والصداع، والغثيان. These effects vary according to the nature and dose of a chemical. Acute effects are often reversible when exposure ceasesيتوقف . • Chronic effects:are not seen right away, but occur later. They result from repeated, cumulative exposure over a period of time, and may take weeks, months, or even years to show up. The effects depend on the nature of the substance and the level of exposure.
Local and Systemic Effects: Local effects: are expressed when a chemical causes harm at its original contact point with the body, usually the skin, eyes, or lungs. Symptoms: Skin exposure: may include: dryness, redness and swelling; rashes طفح جلدي, blisters بثور, and itching حكة. Eye exposure:may result in irritation تهيجor burning. Respiratory tract exposure:may include: headache, nose and throat irritation تهيج الانف والحنجرة, increased mucus, dizziness, and disorientation. زيادة المخاط، والدوخة، والارتباك. Systemic effects:are expressed when chemicals pass through the original point of contact with the body and cause harm to other organ systems, such as the liver, kidneys, heart, nervous system, and muscles.
The Liver and Kidneys are commonly affected sites when chemicals get beyond the original entry points. • The liver modifies many chemicals, detoxifying many in the process. • The kidneys filter impurities from blood for elimination from the body. • As they perform these functions, the liver and kidneys may themselves be damaged by the chemicals. Combined acute and chronic effects are produced by some chemicals. One example: is the solvent trichloroethylene. Acute effects may include dizziness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and blistering of skin الدوخة، والنعاس، والغثيان، والتقيؤ، والطفح الجلدي, while it may also cause chronic effects such as liver damage and cancer. Latent effectالتأثير الكامن is a special type of chronic effect, in which an adverse سلبيcondition or disease arises many years after the original exposure to a hazardous substance. Certain cancers have latency periods of 20-40 years after exposure to a cancer-causing substance.
The Central Nervous Systemis made up of the brain and spinal cord الحبل الشوكي. These organs connect with thousands of nerves, extending throughout the body, which control all sensation and activityالإحساس والنشاط. • Brain functions can be affected by a lack of oxygen, caused by inhaling certain chemicals such as solvents or carbon monoxide. • The first symptoms are typically dizziness دوخة and drowsiness نعاس, which may lead to unconsciousness فقدان الوعي. • Nerve function can be altered or stopped by certain chemicals which block nerve impulses, especially some pesticides and heavy metals (mercury, lead). • The result may be loss of reflexes ردود الفعل, loss of feeling, tremors, or even paralysis فقدان الشعور، الهزات، أو حتى الشلل.. • These effects may be temporary or permanent.
Specific Agents: Carcinogens Carcinogens:are chemicals which are known or suspected to cause cancer. Reproductive toxins سموم الاخصاب: Certain materials may create reproductive hazards by affecting either the female or male reproductive system or the fetus الجنين. Reproductive effects may result from exposure to certain types of chemicals, biological agents, or ionizing radiation. A mutagen طفرة: is a chemical which directly affects the genetic material in human cells, causing changes in the cells called mutations الطفرات. Mutagens can present two kinds of hazards: reproductive damage and cancer.
Reproductive damage can affect both men and women. Exposure to a mutagen may damage or kill sperm or egg cells, which may prevent conception منع الحمل. • If conception does occur, there may be a miscarriage إجهاضor a fetus with genetic defects. Many mutagens are also carcinogens. A reproductive toxin:is a chemical which interferes with the reproductive system الجهاز التناسلي. It may, for example, prevent conception منع الحملby causing menstrual problems in women مشاكل الطمث في النساء, or lowered sperm count or sperm motility in men. In either, sex, it may cause decreased sex drive انخفاض الدافع الجنسي . A teratogen :المسخis a chemical that affects the developing fetus. The fetus may be more sensitive to some chemicals than its pregnant mother, and may be exposed to chemicals through the mother’s bloodstream.
Biological agents:cause infections that are of particular concern for pregnant women. Most of these are viral infections such as rubella الحصبة الالمانية(German measles), varicella (chicken pox)(جدري الماء)or human parvovirus B19. Ionizing radiation:can cause impairment of testicular and ovarian function ضعف وظيفة الخصية والمبيض and cause gene mutation and chromosomal damage. This damage is usually related to a high dose of ionizing radiation. Individuals who work with ionizing radiation are trained how to keep exposure as low as possible. Given proper precautions, most pregnant women can work with ionizing radiation without harm to themselves or their unborn child. Fetal protection:All employees of childbearing age عمر الانجابshould be aware of known or suspected reproductive hazards in the work place and take necessary actions to minimize risks to themselves or their unborn child. Pregnant employees are encouraged to discuss their work environment and duties with their personal physician.
Radioactive Materials: Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer and reproductive effects. Prior to working with or in the near vicinity of radioactive material, employees must receive additional training.
Hazardous Wastes, HW: Discarded Materials Regulated By The EPA Because Of Public Health And Safety Concerns. Dangerous Goods, DG:البضائع الخطرة In International Transportation, Hazardous Materials Are Commonly Referred To As “Dangerous Goods.” Emergency Definition: Developed By Ludwig Benner, Jr. Any Substance That Jumps Out Of Its Container When Something Goes Wrong And Hurts Or Harms The Things It Touches.
Important Hazrdous Topics • Regulatory background • خلفية عن اللوائح والنظم • Hazardous waste identification and characterization • تحديد النفايات الخطرة وتوصيفها • Hazardous waste generator requirements • متطلبات مولد النفايات الخطرة • Container storage and tank requirements • حاويات التخزين ومتطلبات الخزان • Storage areas • مناطق التخزين • Pre-transportation • requirements • متطلبات ما قبل الثقل • Recordkeeping and • reporting • حفظ السجلات وكتابة التقارير • Emergency response • الاستجابة للطوارئ • Waste minimization • تقليل النفايات
Generator Transporter Secondary Consumer Disposer Secondary Transporter
Regulations and Standards Regulations are created by OSHA, DOT and EPA. • Training levels are: • Awareness التوعية • Operations العمليات • Technician الفني • Specialist المتخصص • Incident commander قائد الحدث
Awareness level should be able to: • Understand what hazardous substances are. • Understand potential outcomes. فهم النتائج المحتملة • Recognize presence of hazardous substances. • Identify hazardous substances. • Understand role in the response plan. فهم الدور في خطة الاستجابة. • Determine the need for additional resources. تحديد الحاجة إلى مصادر إضافية. • All personnel should receive appropriate response training.
Chemical Terms Vapor pressure. الضغط البخاري • Amount of pressure between top of liquid and container it is held inside. • Correlates to the speed at which a material will evaporate once it is released from its container. Vapor density. كثافة البخار • Comparison of hazardous material gas to air • If the gas is heavier than air it will sink. • If the gas is lighter than air, it rises and dissipatesينتشر. Specific gravity الكثافة النوعية • Must be determined when applying water to a chemical • If hazardous material will sink or float in water
100ºF Flash point نقطة الوميض • Temperature at which liquid fuel gives off sufficient vapors that will result in a flash fire. • Flash point is normally an indication of susceptibility to ignition. • Low flash point liquids typically have high vapor pressures. Ignition temperature نقطة الاشتعال • Temperature at which liquid fuel will ignite without an external ignition source. (see video)
Flammable Liquid السائل القابل للاشتعال • Any liquid having a flash point below 100°F (37.8°C). • Also known as Class I liquids • Class IA: FP <73°F, BP <100°F (BP=Boiling Point) • Class IB: FP <73°F, BP >100°F • Class IC: FP between 73°F and <100°F Flammable range مدى الاحتراق • Defined by upper and lower limits • Lower flammable limit or LFL. • Upper flammable limit, or UFL.
Combustible Liquid: • Any liquid having a flash point (FP) at or above 100°F (37.8°C). Divided into two classes: • Class II liquids: FP between 100°F (37.8°C) and 140°F (60°C). • Class III liquids: FP at or above 140°F (60°C). • Class IIIA: FP between 140°F (60°C). and 200°F (93.3°C). • Class IIIB: FP at or above 200°F(93.3°C).
What are flammable and combustible liquids? • Flammable and combustible liquids are liquids that can burn. • They are classified, or grouped, as either flammable or combustible by their flashpoints. • Generally speaking, flammable liquids will ignite (catch on fire) and burn easily at normal working temperatures. • Combustible liquids have the ability to burn at temperatures that are usually above working temperatures. (see video)
200 Fº III 140 Fº Combustible Flash point > 100 Fº II Flash Point Fº 100 Fº Flammable Flash point < 100 Fº IC 73 Fº IA IB 100 Fº Boiling Point Fº
What is an Autoignition Temperature? • A material's autoignition or ignition temperature is the temperature at which a material self-ignites without any obvious sources of ignition, such as a spark or flame. • Most common flammable and combustible liquids have autoignition temperatures in the range of 300°C (572°F) to 550°C (1022°F). • Some have very low autoignition temperatures. For example, ethyl ether has an autoignition temperature of 160°C (356°F) and its vapours have been ignited by hot steam pipes. Serious accidents have resulted when solvent-evaporating ovens were heated to temperatures above the autoignition temperature of the solvents used. • Autoignitiontemperatures, however, are intended as guides, not as fine lines between safe and unsafe. Use all precautions necessary. (see vidio)
Threshold limit value (TLV) قيمة حد العتبة Concentration that a person can be exposed to for a 40-hour workweek over a typical 30-year careerمهنة. Threshold limit value/short-term exposure limit (TLV-STEL) Concentration that a person can be exposed to for a limited number of brief time periods. Threshold limit value/ceiling سقف(TLV-C). Concentration that a person should never be exposed to. Threshold limit value/skin (TLV-S). Concentration that direct or airborneمحمول بالهواء contact could result in significant exposure. Toxicology Terms
Dose:The amount of chemical absorbed in a unit mass of tissue or in the whole body. Usually expressed in milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Lethal dose (LD): الجرعة المميتة Single dose that causes the death of a specified number of test animals exposed by any route other than inhalation. LD-50%: Lethal Dose- 50%: The dose of a chemical that will kill 50% of the test animals receiving it. The chemical may be given by mouth (oral), applied to the skin (dermal), or injected (parenteral). A given chemical will generally show different LD50 values depending on the route of administration.
Lethal concentration (LC). التركيز المميت Concentration in air that is expected to kill a specified number of test animals over time. Toxic المادة السامة A chemical that has an LD50 of more than 50 but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats الفئران البيضاءweighing between 200 and 300 grams.
Highly toxic. • A chemical that has an LD50 of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH). • Atmospheric concentration of substance that will pose: • An immediate threat to life. • Irreversible or delayed adverse effects. تأثيرات سلبية لا رجعة فيها • Serious interference for team members.
Hazardous Materials Regulations Several US agencies involved in regulating Chemicals and Hazardous Waste. Three primary government agencies: I) Department of Transportation (DOT) • Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR) قانون اللوائح الاتحادية DOT regulations direct us how to properly package, identify, and label hazardous materials and hazardous wastes for transportation.
II) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)إدارة السلامة والصحة المهنية • Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR) OSHA regulations tell us how to protect ourselves from the effects of hazardous materials in the workplace.
III) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) وكالة حماية البيئة Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR) EPA regulations tell us how to protect our environment.
DOT Regulations DOTclassifies hazardous materials into 9 primary hazard classes which are subdivided into multiple subsidiary risk groups. You don’t need to memorize these, but the primary hazard classes are: Class 1: Explosives المواد المتفجرة Class 2: Compressed Gases الغازات المضغوطة Class 3: Flammable Liquids السوائل القابلة للاشتعال Class 4: Flammable Solids المواد الصلبة القابلة للاشتعال Class 5: Oxidizers المواد المؤكسدة Class 6: Poisons and Toxicsالسموم والمواد السامة Class 7: Radioactive materials المواد المشعة Class 8: Corrosives المواد الأكالة Class 9: Miscellaneous hazardous materials that don’t fit any other hazard class… (eg. dry ice) المواد الخطرة الأخرى التي لا تناسب أي فئة من المواد المصنفة
OSHA Regulations OSHA regulations include the following standards: • Hazard Communication Standard (Hazcom, Right-to-Know). معيار الاتصال للمواد الخطرة (الحق في المعرفة) • Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Labs, including requirements for Chemical Hygiene Plans. التعرض المهني للمواد الكيميائية الخطرة في المختبرات، بما في ذلك متطلبات خطط النظافة الكيميائية. • Respiratory Protection Standard.معيار حماية الجهاز التنفسي • Confined Space Entry Requirements. متطلبات دخول الاماكن المحصورة • Asbestos Standard.معيار المواد الاسبستوسية • Lead (Pb) Standard. معيار الرصاص • Bloodborne Pathogen Standard. معيار الامراض المنقولة بالدم • Formaldehyde, Benzene, and Methylene Chloride standards. معيار بعض المواد الكيميائية OSHA also establishes Permissible Exposure Levels (PELs) for hazardous chemicals
EPA Regulations EPA establishes regulation to protect the environment: • Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) قانون استعادة الموارد • Clean Air Act.قانون الهواء النظيف • Clean Water Act. قانون الماء النظيف • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) قانون التحكم بالمواد السامة • Emergency Planning & Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). قانون التخطيط لحالات الطوارئ وحق المجتمع في المعرفة • Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). قانون الاستجابة البيئية الشاملة والتعويضات والمسؤولية
Hazardous Waste Regulations EPA regulates hazardous waste by authority of the Resource Conservation Recovery Act. RCRA controls include: • Identification of hazardous wastes • Tracking wastes from “cradle to grave” تتبع النفايات من «المهد إلى اللحد" • Setting standards for generators of wastes, transporters of wastes, and Treatment, Storage & Disposal Facilities وضع معايير لمولدي النفايات، وناقلي النفايات، ومرافق المعالجة والتخزين والتخلص من النفايات
Definition of Waste What is waste • The actual definition varies from country to country • Most legal definitions of waste can be summarized as a product or a substance that is no longer suited for its intended use منتج أو مادة لم تعد مناسبة للاستخدام المقصود • According to the Basel Convention, wastes are substances or objects which are disposed or are intended to be disposed or are required to be disposed off by national laws. هي مواد يتم التخلص منها أو من المقرر التخلص منها، أو أن هناك حاجة إلى التخلص منها بموجب القوانين الوطنية.
Kinds of waste Hazardous: • Pose a threat to human health and the environment if it is not handled properly. • For this reason, many countries have strict regulations governing the storage, collection and treatment of hazardous waste. • Much hazardous waste originates from industrial production. • Industrial waste, biomedical waste, Electronic and electrical equipment (EE waste). Non hazardous: • All waste not included in hazardous category. • Solid waste: from cities.
Health/environmental hazards caused by waste 1. Surface water contamination • Takes place when the wastes reach water bodies. • Pollution of rivers, lakes and ground water. 2. Ground water contamination • Residues from waste, leach into the ground water . • Leachateتسرب of chemicals from the contaminated areas. • Movement of leachate from landfillsمكبات النفايات , effluent treating plants and waste disposal sites may result in hazardous substances entering surface water, ground water or soil.
Waste management Waste management means: Classically: The collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, including the supervision of such operations and aftercareالعناية of disposal sites. The newer concepts of ‘Waste management’ talk about: Reduce, Reuse and Recycle of waste over and above waste disposal. تقليل النفايات وإعادة استخدامها وإعادة تدويرها بالإضافة إلى التخلص من النفايات.
Waste management hierarchyالتسلسل الهرمي لإدارة النفايات
Disposal Defined Incinerationحرق , deposition ترسيب, injection حقن, dumpingاغراق, spilling سكب, leakingتسربor placing of solid waste into or on the land or water that the solid waste or a constituent enters the environment, is emitted into the air or is dischargedتقذفto the waters.
Hazardous WasteSources and Effects • Hazardous waste is often defined as waste material that everyone wants picked up but no one wants put down. الجميع يريد رفع كميتها لكن لا أحد يريد اخمادها. Definition: The legal and scientific definitions have become more complex as more compounds are found and more is learned about the toxicity of compounds and elements. To be a hazardous waste (Env. Eng) The material must: 1- Conform to تتوافق معthe definition of waste. 2- It must fit the definition of solid waste. 3- It must fit the definition of hazardous waste.
Definition of Solid Waste Solid waste need not literally حرفياbe a solid. It may be a solid, a semisolid, a liquid, or a contained gaseous material. In accordance with RCRA (Resource Conservation Recovery Act) regulations: • A solid waste is any discarded material that is not specifically excluded by the regulation. مستثناة من الانظمة غير • Discarded material is considered abandoned مهجور, recycled, or inherently متأصل waste like. • Materials are considered abandoned: if they are disposed of, burned or incinerated, or accumulated, stored, or treated (but not recycled) before being abandoned. • Materials are considered recycled: if they are recycled or accumulated, stored, or treated before recycling.
What is Solid Waste? • Does not depend on the physical state of the material (solid, liquid, gas) • Solid Waste: • Any garbage قمامة • Refuse (قمامة)منبوذة • Sludgeحمأةfrom a waste water treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air pollution control facility. • Other discarded material including solid, liquid, semi-solid or contained gaseous material. • Results from industrial, commercial, miningتعدينand agricultural operations and from community activities. الانشطة المجتمعية
Solid Waste • Solid waste: any discarded material • Discarded: abandoned المخلفات المهجورة, considered inherently waste-like, military munitionsالذخائر العسكرية.
Some Solid Waste Exemptions • Domestic sewage.مياه الصرف الصحي المنزلي • Industrial wastewater point source discharges. • تصريفات مصدر مياه الصرف الصناعي • Irrigation return flows. تدفقات الري الراجعة • Byproducts defined by Atomic Energy Act. • المنتجات الثانوية التي يحددها قانون الطاقة الذرية • Some mining materials. بعض مواد التعدين • Reclaimed/reused pulping liquors. المواد السائلة المستصلحة • Spent sulfuric acid used to make new sulfuric acid. • Materials that are reclaimed/returned into original process. • Spent wood preserving solutions that are reclaimed/reused for treating wood. • محاليل حفظ الاخشاب المستنفذة المعاد استخدامها أو المستصلحة
Hazardous Waste • RCRA: (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act)solid waste, or combination of solid wastes, which because of its: • quantity,كميتها • concentration, تركيزها • Physical properties, خصائصها الفيزيائية • Chemical properties, خصائصها الكيميائية • Infectiouseffectتأثيرها المعدي • may pose a hazard to human health or the environment. Solid Waste Hazardous waste Not all solid wastes are hazardous waste
When a waste becomes a hazardous waste? A solid waste becomes a hazardous waste when any of the following events occur: • For listed wastes: when the waste first meets the listing description. • For mixtures of solid waste and one or more listed wastes: when a listed waste is first added to the mixture. • For other wastes: when the waste first exhibits any of the four characteristics of a hazardous waste: • ignitability القابلية للاشتعال • corrosivityتسببالتآكل • reactivityالنشاط الكيميائي • toxicityالسمية After a waste is labeled hazardous, it generally remains a hazardous waste forever.