1 / 45

Chapter 3

Chapter 3. Income and Expense Analysis. Chapter Objectives. Upon completion of this chapter, the participant will be able to: Recognize critical information related to the appraiser’s lease analysis

Télécharger la présentation

Chapter 3

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 3 • Income and Expense Analysis

  2. Chapter Objectives • Upon completion of this chapter, the participant will be able to: • Recognize critical information related to the appraiser’s lease analysis • Recall recognized methods and techniques for estimating and applying market level rent as a component of the appraiser’s value analysis • Estimate, from analysis of market data, various losses and operating expenses associated with income-producing properties • Identify the method and use of expense and income ratios

  3. Collection Loss Estate for Years Net Income Ratio (NIR) Operating Expense Ratio (OER) Periodic Tenancy Reconstructed Operating Income Statement Rent Roll Rent Survey Vacancy Rate Key Terms

  4. Lease Analysis • Level of analysis is determined by scope of work: • Amount of agreed-upon rent • Term of lease (e.g., month-to-month, one year) • Provisions for rent or terms to change • Beginning and ending date • Personal property included • Expenses paid by landlord/tenant • Other services/amenities provided by landlord

  5. Analyzing Lease Documents • Easier for smaller residential income properties than those with a large number of units • Leases are not standard and can vary in style, format, and content • Not all of the content will be meaningful to the appraiser • Some portions are of special interest

  6. Analyzing Lease Documents continued

  7. Analyzing Lease Documents continued

  8. Analyzing Lease Documents continued • Month-to-month agreements are referred to in many areas as a periodic tenancy • When the rent is paid for that month (or some other period of time), the lease automatically renews until the rent is due at the beginning of the next period • When the lease agreement is for a specified period of time (e.g., 6 months or 1 year), the agreement creates a leasehold estate known in some areas as estate for years or a term tenancy

  9. Analyzing Lease Documents continued

  10. Analyzing Lease Documents continued

  11. Analyzing Lease Documents continued

  12. Analyzing Lease Documents continued

  13. Rent Roll • Briefly details the unit information, lease terms, and contract rent, as well as the effective date of the leases that are in place for the property • Can be compiled by the client or property owner as an alternative to presenting each individual lease • Could be created as a summary of the lease terms and information by the appraiser after he examines individual lease documents • Appraiser might develop a rent roll based upon an interview with the client or property owner

  14. Rent Roll Example

  15. Estimating Market Level Rent • Determining an applicable market level rate of rent for subject property is the core of the appraiser’s income analysis for any income-producing property • If data is plentiful and relevant, this will be relatively simple

  16. Rent Surveys • A compilation of the rents being generated, and often rent history, in a particular market for a particular property type • Should include properties that share similar: • Locational desirability • Physical characteristics • Lease terms and conditions

  17. Rent Survey Example

  18. Adjusting Rent Data • Some physical differences can be observed for which a dollar amount could be assigned for the possible adjustments • The scope of work might require the appraiser to further analyze different elements of market appeal • Knowledge of market and market participants will assist the appraiser with this recognition

  19. Deriving Rent AdjustmentsExample 1

  20. Deriving Rent AdjustmentsExample 2

  21. Applying Rent Adjustments Bedroom--$50 per month Central Air-Conditioning--$25 per month Covered Parking--$50 per month

  22. Estimating Vacancy and Collection Losses • Losses due to vacancy and collection are usually based on a percentage of the PGI • The percentage applied is derived from information obtained through: • The property owner • Analysis of leases or rent roll • Market data of other similar properties

  23. Deriving a Vacancy Rate • Vacancy Rate: A percentage rate for all units comprised of the total number of unrented days divided by the total number of rentable days in a year • Should always reflect market level

  24. Deriving a Vacancy Rate Example Subject’s Vacancy Rate: 28 Days ÷ 1,460 Days (365 x 4 units) = 1.92% (Vacancy Rate)

  25. Deriving a Vacancy Rate Example continued • The subject property owner’s estimation of vacancy is not representative of market level • Since the subject has four units, market level vacancy rates would fall somewhere between 2.38% and 2.51% • If the subject’s PGI was $36,000 ($750 x 4 units x 12 months) and a vacancy rate of 2.50% was determined to be appropriate for the subject, the vacancy loss would be $900 • $36,000 x 2.50% (0.025) = $900

  26. Treatment of Collection Losses • Collection (or credit) loss: An amount stated as a percent or a dollar amount reflecting the risk anticipated for nonpayment of rent by tenants • Appropriate when the market supports that there is evidence in the market for its use • Can be derived from surveys similar to that which was performed to derive a market vacancy rate • When warranted, it is applied to PGI in the same manner as the percentage for vacancy loss

  27. Expense Analysis • Market level operating expenses must be estimated when scope of work includes the analysis of NOI • Data ideally provided by, or through an interview with the property owner • Appraiser will typically develop a reconstructed operating income statement: • A statement prepared by the appraiser that reflects anticipated net operating income (NOI)

  28. Expense Analysis Example • See extensive example on pages 33-35

  29. Operating Income Analysis • Extensive analysis is common for larger multi-family properties • A specific form reporting the reconstructed operating income statement is most often a client requirement for 2- to 4-unit residential properties when appraisal is to be used in a mortgage finance transaction

  30. Reconstructed Operating Income Statement • Next step after estimating market level rent/income, as well as market level expenses • The net operating income concluded in this analysis represents a one-year projection for the property • See Example on page 36

  31. Expense and Income Ratios • Types of ratios: • Operating Expense Ratio (OER) • Net Income Ratio (NIR) • Regardless of which the appraiser chooses, the comparison should be consistent (e.g., comparing the OER for the subject to the OER from the market)

  32. Operating Expense Ratio (OER) • Theratio of total operating expenses to effective gross income, expressed as a percentage Total Operating Expenses Effective Gross Income ÷ = OER

  33. Operating Expense Ratio (OER) Example • The subjects total operating expenses = $17,008 • The subject’s effective gross income = $35,100. • Thus, the OER for the subject is 48.46% • $17,008 ÷ $35,100 = 0.4846 or 48.46% Subject’s OER is reasonable and bracketed within the data

  34. Net Income Ratio (NIR) • The ratio of net operating income to effective gross income, expressed as a percentage Net Operating Income Effective Gross Income ÷ = NIR

  35. Net Income Ratio (NIR) Example • The subject’s indicated NOI = $18,092 • The subject’s effective gross income =$35,100 • Thus, the NIR for the subject is 51.54%. • $18,092 ÷ $35,100 = 0.5154 or 51.54% Subject’s NIR appears reasonable and is bracketed within the data

  36. Chapter 3 Quiz • A three-unit apartment building had two units vacant for ten days each during the past year with the third unit being vacant for 17 days. What is the annual vacancy rate indicated by the data? • 2.41% • 3.14% • 3.38% • 3.97%

  37. Chapter 3 Quiz • 2. In a market value assignment, the contract rent of the subject should be • the basis of the appraiser’s analysis for owner-occupied units. • discussed in the appraisal report at the appropriate level of detail. • disregarded, since it never reflects market level. • used as EGI in every income analysis.

  38. Chapter 3 Quiz • 3. When an amenity common to the market is provided by the subject property’s landlord per the terms of the lease, the cost of the amenity must be included when developing • debt service. • effective gross income. • market level operating expenses. • rent surveys.

  39. Chapter 3 Quiz • 4. Analysis of a two-unit property includes developing appropriate replacement reserves for the subject property. Rounded to the nearest dollar, what should be the total annual replacement reserve for the property? • $3,667 • $4,487 • $5,852 • $6,187

  40. Chapter 3 Quiz • 5. Which is a factor used in the appraiser’s analysis that represents the ratio of total operating expenses and effective gross income? • EGI • NIR • NOI • OER

  41. Chapter 3 Quiz • 6. If a four-unit apartment building with a PGI of $950 per unit had a total vacancy of 63 days during the year, what was the EGI? • $40,380 • $41,570 • $43,630 • $45,790

  42. Chapter 3 Quiz • 7. Using these adjustments, what is the indicated adjusted rent to be applied to the subject? Bedroom—$75 Central A/C—$50 Covered Parking—$25 • $1,050 • $1,200 • $1,250 • $1,275

  43. Chapter 3 Quiz • 8. Which item would NOT be considered an operating expense? • accounting expense for property • commission payment to property manager • landscape maintenance • mortgage payment

  44. Chapter 3 Quiz • 9. Rounded to the nearest dollar, if the EGI for a three-unit property is $22,560, what is the NOI if the net income ratio is 46.57%? • $10,506 • $11,731 • $12,337 • $13,639

  45. Chapter 3 Quiz • 10. For the purpose of analysis, the appraiser gathers the subject’s income and expense data from the property owner to assist in developing a • reconstructed operating income statement. • rent adjustment. • rent survey. • vacancy loss.

More Related