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Urban Transport By: Ms. Ester Kalipi Lecturer PowerPoint Presentation
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Urban Transport By: Ms. Ester Kalipi Lecturer

Urban Transport By: Ms. Ester Kalipi Lecturer

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Urban Transport By: Ms. Ester Kalipi Lecturer

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  1. Faculty of Management Sciences Urban Transport By: Ms. Ester Kalipi Lecturer 24 February 2018

  2. Faculty of Management Sciences Contents Objectives of the unit Urban Transport Problem Demand Management Transport planning considerations and process Public transport services and efficiency References

  3. Urban Transport Objectives of the unit • By the end of this unit, student should be able to: • Analyse the elements of transport network planning of routes, nodes and links and the operational elements of timetables and schedules as applied to public transport • Describe the urban transport problems and recommend possible solutions • Explain the role of transport planning and discuss transport planning considerations and processes • Explain the public transport services efficiency concept and suggest ways in which it can be achieved. • Mention the advantages and disadvantages of subsidizing public transport services

  4. Urban Transport Urban Transport Problems • Traffic congestion and parking difficulties • Longer commuting. • Public transport inadequacy • Difficulties for non-motorized transport. • Loss of Public Space. • High maintenance costs. • Environmental Impacts and Energy Consumption • Accidents and safety. • Land Consumption • Freight distribution • Automobile Dependency

  5. Traffic congestion and parking difficulties - one of the most prevalent transport problems in large urban areas, usually above 1 million inhabitants. It is particularly linked with motorization and the distribution of the automobile, which has increased the demand for transport infrastructures. • A condition on the road networks that occurs as use increases, and characterized by slow speed, longer trips times. • Demand for road space exceed the supply. • vehicles spend the majority of the time parked, • motorization has expanded the demand for parking space, creating space consumption problems particularly in central areas. • creates additional delays and impairs local circulation. • Causes of traffic congestion • Growth in population, increasing the number of cars annually. • Increasing number of trucks and commercial vehicles • Small roads for number of cars and motor cycles. • Impacts: • Productivity, Fuel, Wear and tear, Stressed drivers, Delay of Emergencies, Spill over into other roads

  6. Longer Commuting • On par with congestion people are spending an increasing amount of time commuting between their residence and workplace. • The main reason behind this trend is related to residential affordability as housing located further away from central areas (where most employment companies are) is more affordable. • Commuters are trading time for housing affordability. 

  7. Public Transport Inadequacy • Many public transit systems, or parts of them, are either over or under used. • During peak hours, crowdedness creates discomfort for users as the system copes with a temporary higher demand. • Low ridership makes many services financially unsustainable, particularly in suburban areas. • In spite of significant subsidies and cross-financing (e.g. tolls) almost every public transit system cannot generate sufficient income to cover its operating and capital costs. • Difficulties for non-motorized transport- These difficulties are either the outcome of intense traffic, where the mobility of pedestrians, bicycles and vehicles is impaired, but also because of lack of consideration for pedestrians and bicycles in the physical design of infrastructures and facilities.

  8. Urban Transport High maintenance costs -Cities old transport infrastructure are facing growing maintenance costs as well as pressures to upgrade to modern infrastructure. In addition to the costs, maintenance and repair activities create circulation disruptions. Environmental impacts and energy consumption - pollution, including noise, generated by circulation has become a serious obstacle to the quality of life and even the health of urban populations. Energy consumption by urban transportation has dramatically increased and so the dependency on petroleum. Land consumption- Between 30 and 60% of a urban area may be devoted to transportation, an outcome of the over-reliance on some forms of urban transportation. Yet, this land consumption also underlines the strategic importance of transportation in the economic and social welfare of cities.

  9. Urban Transport • Freight distribution- Globalization and the materialization of the economy have resulted in growing quantities of freight (Cargo or goods) moving within cities. As freight traffic commonly shares infrastructures with the circulation of passengers, the mobility of freight in urban areas has become increasingly problematic. • Automobile Dependency - Rising automobile mobility can be perceived as a positive consequence of economic development. The acute growth in the total number of vehicles also gives rise to congestion at peak traffic hours on major thorough fares, in business districts and often throughout the urban area. • Loss of public space -The majority of roads are publicly owned and free of access. Traffic flows influence the life and interactions of residents and their usage of street space. More traffic impedes social interactions and street activities. People tend to walk and cycle less when traffic is high. • Accidents and safety - Growing traffic in urban areas is linked with a growing number of accidents and fatalities, especially in developing countries. Accidents account for a significant share of recurring delays. As traffic increases, people feel less safe to use the streets.

  10. 3. Transport Demand Management • Strategies to manage transport problems include the following: • Park and ride: motorist can park their vehicles ta car park and on their route and make the rest of the journey to the city on a bus or train. • Bus/rail coordination • happen when various types of public transport are integrated to provide links between one form of transport (e.g. buses) to another form of transport (e.g. trains). • through-ticketing; only one ticket is required for a journey which includes travel by bus and rail • expansion of parking capacity and improvements in the security of parking/links between parking and public transport • timetable co-ordination • better facilities for interchange • better connections and co-ordination of public transport services • improved information for customers. • Priority lanes for busses and high occupancy vehicles: • lanes that ensure that vehicles with 2 or more passengers (buses, taxis, seven seater etc.) have exclusive access to a less congested lane, particularly during peak hours.

  11. Car sharing/ carpooling: • an individual providing ridership to people (often co-workers) having a similar origin, destination and commuting time. Two or more vehicle trips are then combined into one. • The second involves a pool of vehicles (mostly cars, but also bicycles) that can be leased or shared for short duration when mobility is required. • Adequate measures must be taken so that supply and demand are effectively matched with information technologies providing an effective support. • Parking management: • Removing parking or free parking spaces can be an effective dissuasion tool since it reduces cruising and enables those willing to pay to access an area (e.g. for a short shopping stop).

  12. Urban Transport Transport Planning • The UK Transport Planning Society view on transport planning: • Transport planning is about preparing, assessing and implementing policies, plans and projects. • Transport planning aims to improve & manage transport systems. • There is a need for transport planning on a local, regional and national level. • It can involve understanding the linkages between transport and the future shape of towns &cities. • It is also about changing people’s attitudes towards travel to encouraging use of alternatives modes to the private car (Transport Planning Society, 2006).

  13. Urban Transport Transport Planning activities • evaluating proposals for new modal infrastructure facilities, including identifying needs in infrastructure improvements/ upgrades and inter-modal facilities improvements • development of network and corridor strategies/studies • designating urban and non urban road freight routes and restrictions • identifying and analysing inter-modal connections to national highways/main arterials for urban goods movement • identifying impacts of changing modal share for commodities

  14. Urban Transport Transport Planning activities (Cont’d..) • identifying appropriate policy or operational responses to anticipated (or predicted) changes in the origin to destination demands for products • setting of performance indicators e.g. modal transfer achievements, emissions reductions • reviewing transport means size and weight regulations • transport/traffic modelling exercises to estimate freight and other traffic generation from development proposals • generating interest and participation from the private sector in transport planning.

  15. TheRole of Transportation Planning • The transport system is an important component of a country’s infrastructure. Transport infrastructure is part of the physical structure of the landscape that influences patterns of growth and the form of development, and provides an opportunity for the movement of people and goods through time and space. (Guide to Road Transport Planning, 2009) . • Transport planning is a critical stage in the assessment of infrastructure proposals. • According to Houghton, McRobert, Patrick, & Tsolakis (2003), Transport Planning is necessary in: • improving accessibility, mobility, transport choice and social equity • supporting economic and regional development • ensuring that efficient (and effective) land-use decisions are made • improving transport safety, social and environmental quality and fostering sustainability of infrastructure and the environment • shaping patterns of development that support communities and neighbourhoods. • Transport planning is seen in the context of the broader evaluation framework for transport decision-making.

  16. Urban Transport 4. Transport planning considerations and process Structure plans: provide a clear picture of whether and where development should take place, what any development should be, and the resources likely to be available from private and public sectors. Transport Policies and Programmes (TPP): submission made by the regional council to the central government which sets out a five-year programme of capital and revenue expenditure for all forms of transport not financed by the owner or operator of the vehicle. Public Transport Plans (PTP): considers a wide rage of services in addition to convectional public transport such as school, hospital, welfare, community transport and social car schemes. PTP reflect closer and extensive consultation with the operators. PTPs are formally published as regional council’s policy for public transport.

  17. Transportation Planning Consideration (Cont’d..) • Air Quality - Usage of the transportation system is an influential factor in a region’s air quality. The estimated emission of pollutants from vehicles is a key consideration in transportation planning. • Congestion Management Process (CMP)- is a way of systematically considering congestion-related issues using a set of technical tools, and basing evaluations on a distinct set of locally determined performance measures. • A CMP provides for the systematic review of performance of multimodal transportation systems in larger areas and identification of strategies to address congestion through the use of “management” strategies focused on both the use and operation of facilities and services.

  18. Financial Planning and Programming - Transportation funds are generated from a number of sources, including income tax, sales tax, tolls, bonds, and state, local, and federal excise taxes on various fuels, state infrastructure banks (SIBs), and credit assistance sources. Each state decides which mix of funds is best suited to carry out particular projects. • Freight Movement- The movement of freight is an important part of a fully functioning transportation system. The efficient movement of freight within and through a region is critically important to industry, retail, agriculture, international trade, and terminal operators • Environment Linkages - State and local agencies can achieve significant benefits by including environmental and community values into transportation decisions early in planning and carrying considerations through project development and delivery.

  19. Land Use and Transportation - Land use and transportation are interdependent: development density and location influence regional travel patterns, and, in turn, the degree of access provided by the transportation system can influence land use and development trends. Urban or community design can facilitate alternative travel modes. For example, a connected system of streets with higher residential densities and a mix of land uses can facilitate travel by foot, bicycle, and public transportation, in addition to automobile. Conversely, dispersed land development patterns may facilitate vehicular travel and reduce the viability of other travel modes. • Performance Measures - demonstrate how well the transportation system is doing its job of meeting public goals and expectations of the transportation network. Some methods used to measure performance include tracking average speeds and crash rates. Performance measures include: safety, quality of life, economic development, mobility and accessibility.

  20. Safety - there are large economic costs associated with crashes, incurred both by those involved and by other travelers affected by the traffic delay caused by crashes. Maintaining high performance in transportation safety requires seamless coordination of activities and funding among multiple partners and a transportation planning process that can coordinate and direct funding toward the highest safety priorities. • Security- Transportation system security can be defined as the freedom from intentional harm and tampering that affects both motorized and non-motorized travelers, and may also include natural disasters. Security goes beyond safety and includes the planning to prevent, manage, or respond to threats of a region and its transportation system and users. • Public Involvement- The fundamental objective of public involvement programs is to ensure that the concerns and issues of everyone with a stake in transportation decisions are identified and addressed in the development of the policies, programs, and projects being proposed in their communities.

  21. System Management and Operations - analyzes regional transportation as an interconnected set of services and systems to improve system performance through better management and use of the multimodal transportation network. • M&O is an integrated approach to optimize the performance of existing infrastructure through the implementation of multimodal, intermodal, and often cross-jurisdictional systems, services and projects. • This includes regional operations collaboration and coordination activities between transportation and public safety agencies. M&O strategies aim at improving service efficiency, enhancing public safety and security, reducing traveler delays, and improving access to information for travelers.

  22. Technology Applications for Planning: Models, GIS, and Visualization • Better planning tools are increasingly available to help planners understand the impact of their decisions on the transportation network and the natural and human environment. A number of decision support tools are available to communities to help them tackle land use, community development, economic development, and environmental protection challenges. • Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based decision support and visualization tools assist planners with conveying information to stakeholders to encourage successful community design and informed decision-making. • Examples of planning tools include transportation models, land use models, GIS, GIS-based decision support tools, scenario planning models, and satellite imagery.

  23. Environmental Justice (EJ) -to ensure that services and benefits are fairly distributed to all people, regardless of race, national origin, or income, and that they have access to meaningful participation. • Transportation Asset Management- is a strategic framework for making cost-effective decisions about allocating resources (funding and personnel) and managing infrastructure (physical assets such as roads, equipment, and buildings). • It is based on a process of monitoring the physical condition of assets, predicting deterioration over time, and providing information on how to invest in order to maintain or enhance the performance of assets over their useful life. • The goals of a transportation asset management program are to minimize the life-cycle costs for managing and maintaining transportation assets, including pavements, bridges, tunnels, rails, and roadside features.

  24. Transport Planning Process Figure 1

  25. Urban Transport • Steps of Transportation planning process • Monitoring existing conditions; • Forecasting future population and employment growth, including assessing projected land uses in the region and identifying major growth corridors; • Identifying current and projected future transportation problems and needs and analyzing, through detailed planning studies, various transportation improvement strategies to address those needs; • Developing long-range plans and short-range programs of alternative capital improvement and operational strategies for moving people and goods; • Estimating the impact of recommended future improvements to the transportation system on environmental features, including air quality; and • Developing a financial plan for securing sufficient revenues to cover the costs of implementing strategies.

  26. Urban Transport The Ten Rules of Urban Transportation Planning by Hartmut Topp Rule 1: Accommodate real needs of all people. Urban and Transportation planning is a social, psychological, economical, ecological, architectural and engineering job. Rule 2: The prosperity of a city depends on accessibility in general, convenience of its streets and open spaces. Rule 3: Transportation and land use must be balanced. Mixed land use must be achieved to reduce journey distances. High density with mixed land use is effective from a transportation point of view. Rule 4: Mathematical modeling of traffic behavior and traffic volumes is an important preparation for the decision making.

  27. Urban Transport • Rules of Urban Transportation Planning (Cont’d..) • Rule 5: Observe the environmental ranking of transportation modes: walking is preferable to cycling, cycling is preferable to public transit, transit is preferable to private car traffic. • Rule 6: Urban Streets are open spaces for the public. Consider functions of the street, i.e. social life, strolling around, providing access to buildings, as well as being a transportation facility for pedestrians, cyclists, public transit and private car. • Rule 7: With increasing density the needs of traffic regulations and their enforcement grow rapidly. Strict area-wide parking restrictions are the most effective measures to control traffic.

  28. Urban Transport • Rules of Urban Transportation Planning (Cont’d..) • Rule 8: urban design and architecture should be done according to human scale. The design quality of a street helps to compensate for the environmental impact of car traffic. • Rule 9: The ground level of streets has to be primarily designed for pedestrians and cyclists, including wide sidewalks, bike lanes, and crossways over the driving lanes. • Rule 10: Provide more plantings and trees within the streets, including frontage and roof planting, thus opening the sealed street surface, improving street climate and visual impression and hiding bad architecture.

  29. Urban Transport 5. Public transport services and efficiency • Efficiency in Public Transport • PT is both commercial activity and a social service • PT is a utility to some people, supplied to them as longest they are connected to the supply. • Public utility charge a standard rate no matter where the customer resides. • Passenger’s point of view • Structured and timetabled to meet average customer’s needs • Inflexible & passenger must fit the journey pattern to the service on offer. • PT is inefficient because service does not go where passenger requires, and often does not go where and when timetabled. • Government point of view • PT is complex mix of different factors • Utilization of resources including land, fuel & materials, the burden of finances • How the needs of any community for mobility and access are to be met

  30. Urban Transport 5. Public transport services and efficiency (Cont’d..) • Commercial field point of view • Having to compete in the market place with companies offering similar goods or services • Profit – greater efficiency in meeting the needs of the customers means greater operating profits. • Commercial competition and profit motive are strong inducements towards efficiency • Competition led to greater innovation services, lower fares and greater attention on the needs of the passenger • Cycling • Cycle ways reduce accidents • Reduce pollution • Save energy • Leads to much healthier population

  31. Urban Transport • Unconventional transport • Rural transport problem • People are used to living without provision of public transport • High proportion of the population in the rural area own cars and those who don’t gain mobility by getting lifts. • Little chance in energizing ordinary conventional bus services without the level subsidy increasing • Lots of people cannot arrange for lifts and needs public transport to meet the need for mobility and accessibility • Unconventional transport alternatives involving village buses run by volunteers, shared taxis, car schemes and post buses. • Unconventional transport are successful, however need to be assessed. • All schemes are dependent on voluntary effort which is unpaid and not truly accounted for in true costs of the scheme.

  32. Urban Transport • Bus/Rail co-ordination • Railway provide greater carrying capacity than any other mode, especially during peak hours. • Railways also avoid delays and unreliability associated with road congestion • Coordination of bus & railway services can improved public transport services • Rail routes link suburban areas to city centres have advantages for trunk haul movement stemming from reserved right of way. • Planned coordination of bus services and railway services from suburban stations can widen catchment area to allow people to benefit from congestion-free railway services • Depends on complexity of the railway network and location of railway stations relative to city centre destinations • Not suitable for inconvenient locations with long distance to the shops, offices • Reluctance for passengers to change modes in the middle of the journey • Transfer time should be kept to the minimum as much as possible • Done through ticketing- single ticket valid for a combination of bus & rail journeys • Save operators money in fare collection & no need to publish separate fare scales for each mode

  33. Urban Transport Park & Ride • Utilize the benefits of two modes of transport and combine them to give an optimum journey to the town Centre of the travelers • Reduce congestion in the central area of the city • Offer time & cost saving while maintaining adequate level of comfortability • An express service taking advantage of traffic management and bus priority schemes to avoid congestion and achieve very fast times from car parking place to town centre. • attractive when car parking is expensive and in short supply. • Factors: • Measure the actual number of car passenger using the city centre in conjunction with actual congestion • Interchange should be located outside the congested area to avoid additional congestion created by cars entering the car park • Frequency of the service must be such that waiting time at the interchange is kept to a minimum.

  34. Urban Transport Right rail • Significant investment in a system with its own right of way • Based on current railway facilities with appropriate renewal and upgrading of lines & stations • Improvements of central area accessibility by linking rail lines Taxis • Closest mode of public transport to the private car • Does not require central long-stay parking facilities • Uses operational taxi ranks • Relatively expensive to use • Need priority booking and can cause their own city congestion • Number of passenger per vehicle is limited • They are often treated like a private car.

  35. Urban Transport Assessment of Transport Services • Measure the use of resources and costs • Costs is assessed in terms of the impact on the society as whole • assessment of environmental costs or disadvantages of using different transport costs • Airports reached a limit on the design in domestic market and improvement can be made to make airports more accessible with less time to spend on airport processes. • Buses also reached a limit of their potential on existing roads, improvements require better roads and technological advanced buses with number of driver assisting aids • Rail has considerable potential for technical development but requires great deal of investment.

  36. Urban Transport Subsidy • Subsidies apply to all modes of transport • Subsidies are found in shipping and air transport just as much as with bus and rail • Without subsidy half of the airlines would be bankrupt and unable to operate. • the money paid to cover shortfalls in revenue or support business is called operating subsidy • Money paid to cover the purchase price of a vehicle or equipment is called capital or investment subsidy • The government makes sure that at the end of the accounting year the company can balance the accounts because income will be more than equal to the expenditure even though some of the income did not come from selling tickets.

  37. Urban Transport The advantages of subsidy • Subsidies on public transport are worthwhile and economic because it reduces congestion, pollution and accidents • Subsidy prices are closely tied in with car parking charges and planning • By subsidizing the operation of the system, the services will be used to a greater extent than before, hence rectifying some of the misallocation of resources. • Subsidies can achieve a better modal split in favour of public transport to the advantage of the community • Public transport when fully utilized is more energy efficient than private transport • Subsidies are intended to cover services which cannot be provided commercially but which are politically deemed necessary for the community.

  38. Urban Transport Disadvantages of subsidy • A subsidy involves greater taxation for the community, whether from local or central government. • Opportunity cost for money • If there is an increase in the level of subsidy payments to public transport, than a decrease must be made in the amount of money spent on health, education or defence. • Subsidy undermines the motivation of public employees to be efficient. • Public transport managers do not use their management skill to sell the service so that revenues can cover costs • Any shortfall is covered by the government by means of a subsidy. • Encourages public transport management to allow costs rise unchecked because they employ too many staff, pay higher wage rates than necessary and invest in resources that are not really needed. • Subsidy passed on to the passenger in the form of lower fares • Rich people benefit more from rail services subsidies than poor people because rich people use railways more

  39. Urban Transport 6. References Gubbins, E. J. (2003). Managing transport operations. Kogan Page Publishers. Guide to Road Transport Planning, (2009). AustroadsIncorporated. ISBN 978-1-921551-06-2 Houghton, N., McRobert, J., Patrick, S., and Tsolakis, D., 2003. Planning for Freight in Urban Areas, ARRB Group Ltd. Austroads Report Project No. RSM.G.N.507. The Transportation Planning Process Key Issues: A Briefing Book for Transportation Decision makers, Officials, and Staff. Federal Highway Administration and Federal Transit Administration, United State Government. Date Retrieved February 23, 2018. UK Transport Planning Society, (2006).

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