Hungarian Uprising 1956
Nikita Khrushchev Part of the Bolsheviks during WW1 Part of the Red Army and fought against the Whites in the Ukraine during the Civil War Khrushchev's de-Stalinzation policy encouraged people living in Eastern Europe to believe that he was willing to give them more independence from the Soviet Union. After the Hungarian Khrushchev sent Janos Kadar to Hungary and imprisoned Nagy
Imre Nagy • 1953-1955 (1st term) • Oct 1956-Nov 4 1956 (2nd term) • Wanted to implement ‘far reaching democracy’ for Hungarian people, improve daily lives of workers, withdraw from Warsaw Pact • Executed in June 1958 • “This fight is the fight for freedom by the Hungarian people against the Russian intervention, and it is possible that I shall only be able to stay at my post for one or two hours. The whole world will see how the Russian armed forces, contrary to all treaties and conventions, are crushing the resistance of the Hungarian people.”
1) De-Stalinization Death of Joseph Stalin= death of Stalinism- Showed Hope! Death relieved tensions in Soviet Union and E. European countries. Hungary wanted to become democratic Hungary was a religious country, S.U. banned religious practices
2)Poland Uprising Gave Poland new hope make itself democratic 100,000 workers, students were on the streets protesting- Strike Polish has 10,000 troops and 400 tanks. 19th October, 1956 Khrushchev flew to Warsaw, Poland and fought with the Polish with warships. Result: gained somewhat freedom such as the economy, but were part of the Warsaw Pact.
3)Warsaw Pact Treaty between 8 E. and Central European countries. USSR’s version of NATO Purpose: Treaty of friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual assistance. Provide aid to the countries if any opponents attacked
4)Hungarian Economy • A lot of Poverty • Hungarian families had barely anything to eat • Produced a lot of food but was all imported to Soviet Union
Hungarian Goal • Oct 23 1956 students and workers from Budapest protested their 16 points which included more food, removal of secret police, and removal of Russian control > FREEDOM • Wanted to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact. • Become democratic
What was the style of war, conflict, or dispute? • Recall: Oct 23 1956 students/workers in Budapest protested for freedom • Oct 31: President Imre Nagy withdraws Hungary from Warsaw pact • Nov 4: Soviet tanks enter Budapest
Soviet troops enter Hungary • Major form of weaponry used were tanks which were used in world war 2 as they caused severe damage. • These tanks caused: • Brutality • Killing of wounded people • Tanks dragged bodies through streets as warning to protestors
Combatants • Workers, university and school students, soldiers • Had a massive riot in Budapest, Hungary • Stalin’s statue was smashed and protesters chanted “Russians go home” “Long live Nagy” • November 4th, Russians fought with Hungarians with tanks and destroyed Hungarian army and children were also fighting with dangerous weapons.
Result: • 30,000 people killed in Budapest • 200,000 people fled to the West to seek safety from the Soviet brutality • Over 700 Soviet soldiers die & other executed from refusing to fight • President Imre Nagy was executed in Romania • Nov 14: the goal of the Soviet Union was to have Hungary under control from Moscow • During the protest Soviet Union was already sending in Kadar to be put in charge and for communism to be restored.
Why did nobody help? • WHERE WAS THE US? • During the time of the Cold war the US continuously preached about helping nations that were under communist rule. • During the crisis Eisenhower stated: “I feel with the Hungarian people. To all those suffering under communist slavery, let us say you can count on us.” However the US did nothing!
Why? • The Geographic location of Hungary • Too risky that a war would result if US intervened in Hungary • Both the US and Soviet Union were huge nuclear powers so the risk of a nuclear war was too much • Suez crisis was the main priority by BR, FR, US. Not Hungary.
Role of the UN • Nov 1: Nagy asked UN to become involved in country’s dispute • 1.Establishes, for the above-mentioned purposes, a Special Committee, composed of representatives of Australia, Ceylon, Denmark, Tunisia and Uruguay, to investigate, and to establish and maintain direct observation in Hungary and elsewhere, taking testimony, collecting evidence and receiving information, as appropriate, in order to report its findings to the General Assembly at its eleventh session, and thereafter from time to time to prepare additional reports for the information of Member States and of the General Assembly if it is in session;
2.Calls upon the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Hungary to co-operate in every way with the Committee, and in particular, to permit the Committee and its staff to enter the territory of Hungary and to travel freely therein; • The actions of the UN lead to a forced peace treaty signing between Soviet union and Hungary however it was unsuccessful.
What were the types of settlements which concluded the uprising? • The result of the Hungarian uprising was neither a victory, ceasefire, or a negotiated settlement • Thousands of Hungarians were arrested and deported to the Soviet Union • Kadar comes to power but implements a form of communism called “Goushlash Communism”. This was communism with free market economics.
Bibliography • BBC: GCSE Bitesize. "Cause and Effect of the Hungarian Revolution." n.d. 10 February 2013. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/history/mwh/ir2/hungaryrev3.shtml>. • Clare, John D. "Hungarian Revolution 1956." 2002. John D. Claire. 10 February 2013. <http://www.johndclare.net/cold_war14.htm>. • Poznan-Life. "Poznan 1956 Uprising." 2005. 10 February 2013. <http://www.poznan-life.com/poznan/poznan-1956>. • Sam Houston State University. "The Warsaw Pact." n.d. 10 February 2013. <http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/WarPact.html>. • Socialist Worker. "Poland 1956: The Poznan uprising." 1 July 2006. 10 February 2013. <http://www.socialistworker.co.uk/article.php?article_id=9117>. • Trueman, Chris. "The Hungarian Uprising of 1956." 2000. 10 February 2013. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/about-the-author.htm>. • United Nations. "Report of the Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary." 1957. lib.com. 10 February 2013. <http://libcom.org/files/Report%20of%20the%20UN%20Special%20Committee% 20on%20the%20Problem%20of%20Hungary%20%28compiled%201957%29.pdf>.