Bio-molecules&Enzymes By: Maia Steward
4 Bio-molecules • Carbohydrates • Proteins • Lipids • Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates • Made up of glucose chains, in the form of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. • Includes starches, simple sugars, and complex sugars. • Used for short-term energy storage.
Proteins • Made up of amino acids. • Includes enzymes and muscles. • Used to build and retain muscle mass
Lipids • Are made up of glycerol and fatty acids • Includes oils, fats, and waxes. • Used as long-term energy storage and insulation.
Nucleic Acids • Made up of nucleotides • Includes DNA and RNA • Used in reproduction of cells as well as translation and transcription.
What Are Enzymes? • Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. • They are catalysts which are one of the groups of biochemical’s. • Increases the speed of the chemical reactions. • Each enzymes are each different for one reaction. • Enzymes are large molecules of amino acids that have various shapes and functions. Here is a three dimensional visual of enzymes. Figure 1
Factors That Affect Enzyme Activity • As the concentration of the substrate goes up so does the enzyme activity. • The enzymes work at a certain pH and outside the pH, their effectiveness drops dramatically. • Enzymes generate at a specific temperature range and outside that range the enzymes starts to lose shape and breaks down. • When the temperature or Ph causes the enzyme’s bonds to break, the enzymes lose their shape and the way it normally functions.
How Do They Work? • Enzymes are catalysts that help chemical reactions speed up and save energy while going through the reaction process. • All living organisms contain catalysts, a side note not all catalysts are proteins • Chemical reactions happen when chemical bonds are broken. • The substances you start with are called reactants and what you end up with are the products. • The energy required to break existing chemical bonds and to start a chemical reaction is the activation energy. • Enzymes lower the activation energy so the reactants use less energy to turn into the product, saving energy for the organism. Figure 2
Lock and Key Like a lock and key, each reactant and enzyme have a certain shape that fit each other Another way to say this is both the enzyme and reactant have complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another and this was suggested by Emil Fischer in 1894.
Why Do We Need Enzymes? • An important function of enzymes is in the digestive systems of animals. Enzymes such as amylases and proteases break down large molecules like starch and protein, into smaller ones, so they can be absorbed by the intestines. • The enzymes do this with MUCH LESS ENERGY than the body could break them down without the enzymes • For example, Starch is in-absorbable in the intestine, but enzymes break the starch chains into smaller molecules such as maltose and eventually glucose, which can then be absorbed. • Each different enzyme digests a different food substance. Figure 3
Can They Be Used In Anything Else? Do you remember what you dump into your washing machine except for your dirty laundry? Your detergent. What does this have to do with enzymes? Enzymes in biological washing powders break down protein or fat stains on clothes. Figure 4
An Example Of A Creature That Makes Use Of Enzymes • Fungi is a group of eukaryotic organisms that feed themselves • by decomposing and absorbing organic material from which they grow on. Fungi have evolved the • ability to produce enzymes in their “skin” to break down large, complex organic molecules so • that they can digest and absorb nutrients, straight through their skin! Luckily, most likely the host is dead. Here is a example of the Cordycep fungi or famously known as vegetable caterpillar is • eating away at its host, the Tarantula.
Now You Know About Enzymes, Go Brag About What You Learned Today! Figure 7