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INFORMATIONAL BIO-MOLECULES PowerPoint Presentation
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INFORMATIONAL BIO-MOLECULES

INFORMATIONAL BIO-MOLECULES

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INFORMATIONAL BIO-MOLECULES

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  1. INFORMATIONAL BIO-MOLECULES BIO-MOLECULES Condensation Monomers (sub-units) Polymers (Macro-molecules) Hydrolysis Simple sugars Fatty acids Amino acids Nucleotides Polysaccharides Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids DNA Nucleic Acids Informational RNA carry, transfer, express genetic information Proteins Bio-Polymers Non-Informational Polysaccharides, Lipids

  2. Nucleotides • A nucleotide contains:. Pentose Sugar (has 5 C) • . Nitrogenous Base • . Phosphate group(s) • A Nucleotide is a NucleosidePhosphate • Nucleotides arebuildingunits (monomers) ofNucleic Acids: • (Ribonucleotides→RNA &Deoxyribonuleotides→DNA)

  3. A comparison between DNA and RNA structures RNA contains the pyrimidineuracil (U) in place of thymine (T)

  4. DEOXYRIBONUCLEICACID (DNA) Phospho-Di-Esterbond • DNA stores the genetic information • It contains two complementary polynucleotide strands • Nucleotides of a strand bind byphospho-di-esterbonds • The two strands form a regular double helixwith the bases inside • Purines bond with pyrimidines: (A pairs with T) & (G pairs with C) • Strands areanti-parallel(one runs5'to3'&one runs3' to 5')

  5. RIBONUCLEICACID (RNA) • Contains the pyrimidine(U) but not (T) • Normallysingle-stranded • Synthesized based onDNA templates • Types of RNA: • 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA): Translated into proteins • 2. Transfer RNA (tRNA): Carries amino acids for translation • 3. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA): Component of the ribosome, • The most abundanttype 5

  6. Denaturation & Renaturation of DNA Denaturation (separation of the 2 DNA strands) Biologically Physically Chemically (By Enzymes) (Heat to 90ºC) (Alkaline pH)

  7. Genetic Elements Properties: Carry Genetic Information &Self Replicate Chromosomal Types: Non-Chromosomal: include: 1. Viruses:Sub-cellular infectious particles 2. Plasmids:Circular double-stranded (ds) non-essential DNA molecule 3. Transposons:DNA sequences that can move to different positions within chromosomes of a cell (undergo transposition) Contain circular ds DNA chromosomes 4.Mitochondria: (For Respiration) 5.Chloroplasts: (For Photosynthesis) Believed to have evolved from bacteria that formed a symbiotic relationship with eukaryoticcells

  8. From DNA to CHROMOSOMES A Nucleosome A Chromosome DNA winds twice around a histone protein • Condensed eukaryotic chromosome • Shown at initial cell division stages • Formed of two sister Chromatids • Each chromatid has a linear ds DNA • Chromatin: DNA + linked proteins Coilingof the DNA molecule

  9. Viruses and Plasmids • Viruses: • A virus is a genetic elementsenclosed by a protective coat • Can move from one cell to another (mobilegenetic element) • Plasmids: • Circular double stranded mobile genetic elements • Carry genes for accessory traits • Usually confer antibiotic resistance • Plasmid size: 1 - 250 kbp. • Plasmid copy number per cell: 1 - 100

  10. Organellegenetic elements • Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the main energy convertersin the cell Chloroplast Mitochondrion • Share some features with prokaryotic cells: • Each mitochondrion and chloroplast contains a circularchromosome • Have 70 S ribosomes (eukaryotic cytoplasm bears 80 S ribosomes) • Believed to have evolved from bacteria that formed symbiotic relationship • They contain proteins that are coded by organelle & nuclear genes • Most Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from egg cells rather than sperm 10

  11. Keywords: Monomer DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) RNA (Ribonucleic acid) Messenger RNA Ribosomal RNA Transfer RNA Denaturation Genetic element Histone Nucleosome Chromatin Chromosome Chromatid Plasmid Transposon Transposition Informational macromolecules (Informational bio-molecules) Protein ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) Nucleoside Nucleotide Ribonucleoside Ribonucleotide Deoxyribonucleoside Deoxyribonucleotide Nitrogenous base Purines Pyrimidines Nucleic acids Phosphodiester bond Polymer 11