Download
bio molecules n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Bio molecules PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Bio molecules

Bio molecules

317 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Bio molecules

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Biomolecules Biological Molecules “Molecules of Life”

  2. Also called Organic molecules

  3. Biological molecules are large molecules found in all living things Biological Molecules

  4. 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids 4 Types of Biomolecules

  5. CHNOPS These molecules are made of the elements: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Nitrogen • Oxygen • Phosphorus • Sulfur • All these molecules contain the element Carbon

  6. All living things contain Carbon

  7. Carbohydrates A fancy way of saying sugar!

  8. Functions 1. Short-term energy storage

  9. 2. Gives organisms Shape/Structure: Example1: Exoskeleton of crabs and beetles Example: 2 Cellulose: plant cell walls

  10. Examples: Carbs are in plants! • Glucose = sugar in plants • Fructose = in fruit • Lactose = in milk • Sucrose = table sugar Words for sugars end in “ose”

  11. The subunit of a carbohydrate is a Monosaccharide Mono = 1 Saccharide = sugar Monosaccharide = 1 sugar molecule

  12. Disaccharide = 2 sugars

  13. Starches are polysaccharides Polysaccharide = many sugars

  14. More names for Carbohydrates

  15. Structure • Carbohydrates are ring-shaped molecules

  16. Elements • The elements that bond to make carbohydrates are: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen

  17. Lipids= Fats Function • Long term energy storage • Common names= fat, oil • Elements= C,H,O

  18. Lipid facts • Large , organic molecules • Won’t dissolve in water • Fats store more energy than carbs because they have many carbon-hydrogen bonds • Can be “saturated” or “unsaturated"

  19. Saturated and Unsaturated fats • Saturated= solid at room temperature, Raise “bad” (LDL) cholesterol levels Ex= animal products, coconut • Unsaturated=liquid at room temperature, Raise “good” (HDL) cholesterol Ex= olive oil, avocado, almonds

  20. More Examples • Lard • Steroids: examples Cholesterol & testosterone • Waxes (like earwax!) • Phospholipids: these make up your cell membrane

  21. Phospholipids

  22. Lipids • Subunit= fatty Acids • Shape= chains

  23. Proteins 2 Main Functions 1. Form structures, like muscle 2.Act as Enzymes, which speed chemical reactions Elements= C,H,O,N,S Examples= Meat, muscle, enzymes

  24. Proteins’ subunit is amino acids • Proteins are one of the most diverse biomolecules, having lots of different shapes • They are composed of 20 different types of amino acids • Amino acids have an amino group (-NH3) and a carboxyl group (-COOH)

  25. More Functions of Proteins • Control rates of reactions & regulate cell processes • Form bones & muscles • Transport substances in & out of cells • Help fight disease.

  26. ENZYMES are Proteins! Enzymes are important proteins that speed up the chemical reactions in your body • Because they help these reactions happen, they are called catalysts Ex. The enzyme amylase helps break down carbohydrates into sugar when you chew

  27. How Enzymes Work • Every reaction needs energy to get started; this is called activation energy • Enzymes decrease the amount of energy needed to get these reactions going • Different reactions in your body need different enzymes • Without the correct enzyme available, your body cannot function properly

  28. Enzyme Action • How well enzymes work depend on 3 criteria: temperature, pH & concentration • Temperature: enzymes in your body work best at normal body temperature 2. pH: Different enzymes work best at different pH levels 3. Concentration: in general, the higher the concentration, the better the enzyme will work at speeding up the reaction.

  29. pH Scale

  30. Nucleic Acids • Elements: CHNOP • Functions: Store and transmit genetic information • 2 Kinds to remember • DNA= deoxyribonucleic acid • RNA= ribonucleic acid

  31. Nucleic acids- shape & subunit Shape of DNA= double helix Shape of RNA= single strand Subunit= nucleotide 3 parts: • Sugar • Phosphate • Nitrogen-containing base • DNA has 4 Types of bases= A,T,C,G (adenine, thymine, cytosine & guanine)

  32. Compare DNA and RNA DNA structure= double helix RNA structure= single strand