Bell Ringer • What were the 6 main countries to start World War II? (NOT the US) • What is appeasement? • What is isolationism? • What are things you know/or think you know about World War II?
Bell Ringer • What is fascism? • What was the problem with the League of Nations in the 1930s? • What is blitzkrieg?
Bell Ringer • Why is the blitzkrieg an effective fighting tactic? • What is a disadvantage to a stationary defense? • What is the advantage of defending an island?
Bell Ringer • What was the Maginot line? • What was the result of the Munich Pact? • What event dragged the US into WWII?
Bell Ringer • What was the lend lease act? • What is the RAF? • Where do you think the city of Stalingrad is located (country)?
Bell Ringer • Why did the blitzkrieg fail in Russia? • What is a theater in terms of warfare? • Why did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor?
Bell Ringer • What was “cash and carry” during World War II? • Where did the US see its first fighting in Europe Theater? • What is V-E Day?
Bell Ringer • What three countries invaded beaches on D-Day? • What is Midway? • What is the Manhattan Project?
Bell Ringer • What is Defense in Depth? • What is a kamikaze attack? • What were the two cities destroyed by atomic bombs?
Bell Ringer • What arguments were there for using the atomic bomb? • What arguments were there for NOT using the atomic bomb?
Russia (Communism) • In 1917 the Russian Monarchy was overthrown creating a Bolshevik State (USSR) • In 1924 Joseph Stalin took control of the USSR as a totalitarian dictator. • Stalin attempted to modernize Russia and increase industrial production through five year plans • Millions would die in Russia through purges or starvation brought on by the five year plans
Italy (Fascism) • Italy felt largely insulted by their small role in creating the Treaty of Versailles • Benito Mussolini, a veteran, took advantage of this by creating a fascist party, or one that focused on extreme nationalism • Mussolini convinced the Italian people they could recreate the great Roman Empire • He would rise to the rank of Prime Minister and outlaw much of his Opposition
Germany (Nazis) • German felt insulted and devastated by the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles • Hitler preached the idea that Germans and other Nordic people were ethnically & genetically superior to others (Aryan Race) • Hitler called for Lebensraum, or living space, for the German people in his book Mien Kampf • In 1934 he legally became both President and Chancellor of Germany
Japan • Japan was an isolationist nation until the US forced them to trade with the world in 1853 • In 1867 an uprising against the Shogun turned into a full out rebellion with the winners using “modern” weapons • The new Japan would launch a huge movement to industrialize and modernize. • They would be on the winning side of World War I, and would be the major Asian power
Britain, France, & USA • Britain • Still ruled a fairly large Empire around the world, wanted to avoid war and maintain economic stability • France • Suffered from political instability, and developed elaborate defenses against a possible German attack • USA • Had actively attempted to return to isolationism since WWI
The World • The world had been severely impacted by the Great Depression • The League of Nations (without an Army) is forced to rely on member nations to enforce their rulings. • Britain and France don’t want to spend the money to militarily enforce decisions, and this leads to a rise in aggressive actions by the Japanese, Germans, and Italians
Japanese Aggressions • In 1920 Japan was a member of the League of Nations, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact (an international agreement to not use war as a diplomatic tactic) • They had also shrunk their navy to 3/5 its size because of disarmament agreements • However, Japan was a resource poor island and needed raw materials. • In 1931 the Japanese would stage an attack on their forces, and use this as an excuse to invade Manchuria. • Then in 1937 the Japanese would invade Nanking, and go on a 6 week rampage through the city that left 100,000 dead, and is known as the Rape of Nanking • The Chinese point to THIS as the start of World War II
German Aggressions • Hitler will begin to blatantly defy the Treaty of Versailles • 1936 Germany reoccupies the Rhineland • 1938 Germany annexes Austria (Anschluss) • 1938 Germany gains the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia • Britain (Europe) employs a policy of appeasement.
Munich Pact • Hitler stated his goal was to reunite all ethnic Germans • He was specifically going after areas that were ethnically German, and HAD been apart of Germany before 1918 • Sept 1938: Hitler promises this is the end of German expansion • English PM Chamberlin announces “Peace in our time” • Hitler annexes the rest of Czechoslovakia 6 months later…
Meanwhile, in the USA • In 1935 Italy invaded the African nation of Ethiopia (used tanks, planes, & gas on tribes) • Since Italy had been a prime enforcer of the League of Nations the US is asked for help • The US says no, citing the Neutrality Act of 1935 which stopped the US from supplying nations in conflict with materials of warfare • The US would stay out of conflicts by signing neutrality acts in 36 & 37, but FDR would write letters to aggressor nations asking for peaceful resolutions to problems.
The Start of World War II • Germany annexation of Czechoslovakia put Britain and France on high alert. • Britain and France informed any more territorial expansion by him would result in war • Hitler & Stalin signed a non-aggression treaty in August 1939 (which also secretly split Poland in two) • September 1st Germany invaded Poland, September 3rd Britain & France declared war, & World War II had begun.
Blitzkrieg- Lightning War • One of Hitler’s main strategies during WWII was the Blitzkrieg • The German army would rush forward as quickly as possible with tanks, planes, and soldiers. • The speed of the attack often left enemies dazed and confused, and as a result was highly successful. • Poland would only last 16 days.
French Defenses: Maginot Line • Since World War I had ended the French had been determined to stop another German invasion. • They constructed the Maginot Line, an in depth fortification along the Germany-France border • The French believed there would be no way the Germans would invade through the “low countries” again (Netherland, Belgium, Luxemburg)
France falls • Hitler would quickly turn his attention to France after the fall of Poland (His non- aggression agreement with Stalin stood) • France had the majority of its army at the Maginot Line, and the Germans invaded through Belgium & Luxemburg (again) reaching France in just 4 days • In 1940 France, Belgium, Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway would all fall to the Germans • Denmark, Norway, and the Netherlands fell in just 18 days
Miracle at Dunkirk • As the German army swept into France it pinned the British, French, & Belgian defensive forces against the sea. • If Hitler could successfully kill/capture these forces there would not be an army in Europe to compete with
Hitler issued a Halt order to his division: he feared the ground was too soft to use tanks effectively on, and his pilots were worn out from constant attacks • In a week long rescue effort (May 27-June 4) every available boat was sent between Britain and France to ferry soldiers back to safety • In what is commonly referred to as the “Miracle at Dunkirk,” some 338,000 soldiers were rescued by the British
Britain stands alone: Battle of Britain • Britain was the last European Country to stand against Germany. • The Germans would relentlessly bomb Britain hoping to beat them into submission (The Blitz). Civilians fled to the country side, or hid in Tube tunnels • The Royal Air Force (RAF) would night after night fight the German attack, and hold off any possible invasion
We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender, and if, which I do not for a moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our Empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, would carry on the struggle, until, in God's good time, the New World, with all its power and might, steps forth to the rescue and the liberation of the old.
Results of The Blitz • Hitler sent 2,500 bomber & fighter planes to attack Britain during the Blitz • The RAF successfully shot down 1,700 German aircraft, while only losing 915 • Statistically 3 of every 4 pilots shot down were able to safely eject from their plane. They were recovered by the RAF, and sent back up in a new plane. • The Blitz would devastate cities, such as London • Hitler was forced to halt his attack on Britain as his industry could not replace the planes as quickly as they were being shot down
Roosevelt to the Rescue • In 1939 Roosevelt would push a “modified” Neutrality act through Congress. • It contained a “cash & carry” clause: If a nation could pay for materials in cash AND carry it away in their own ships, then the US would sell them whatever they like. • In 1940 the US military started to remilitarize, but did not enter the war.
Lend-Lease • By 1940 Britain was nearly bankrupt, and FDR determined the US needed to “lend all aid short of war.” • The US Congress passed the Lend Lease Act after much debate. • The act authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to "the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States." (WITHOUT PAYING) • 1941 June- Hitler attacks Russia
Atlantic Charter • 1941 August- Churchill and FDR met on a war ship off the coast of Canada. • Here they developed the Atlantic Charter • They would not use war to expand their territory • All people should have the right to rule themselves • 1941 November- Congress allows US transport ships to arm themselves and sail to Europe
Pearl Harbor • 1940-1941: Japan had been conquering large portions of the Pacific in search of raw materials • The US attempted to curb Japanese aggression by Japanese enemies, and freezing their money in US banks • Dec 7 1941- Japan would launch a surprise attack on the US Naval Base located at Pearl Harbor Hawaii (2,400 dead, 1,200 wounded, 300 aircraft, 8 Battle Ships) • The next day FDR asked for Congress to declared war on Japan, they would (82-0 Senate, 388-1 House) • Dec 11 1941- Germany & Italy declared war on the US
Germany invades the USSR • Believing Britain a nation only days away from collapsing in on itself, Hitler turn the German Army’s attention to Russia (need for oil/disliked Stalin) • A massive Blitzkrieg attack was launched • The Buffer area of Poland (& Russia’s huge size) gave the Russian army room to retreat • The Red Army practiced “Scorched Earth” • The onset of Russian Winter would halt the Nazi offensive
Axis in North Africa • Oil will be a driving factor in Hitler’s decisions • Militarily the Germans cannot push into the Middle East through Europe, so Hitler sends a tank division to Africa (to help the Italians who are doing pretty poorly): AfrikaKorps • Led by Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) • A main goal of the Germans: take control of the Suez Canal