Introduction to Psychology Mrs. Etter Psychology
What we’ve talked about so far… • Personality • A solid core of traits reflecting the unique essence of a particular human being • That core of thoughts and feelings inside you that tells you how to conduct yourself. • Your personality is more than just an “attitude.” It is what causes you to act and react the way you do.
What we’ve talked about so far… • The Color Code Test • Red – Power • Blue – Intimacy • White – Peace • Yellow - Fun • Reds and Blues spend their lifetimes trying to control others. • Whites and Yellows spend their lifetimes refusing to be controlled. • This year 85% of employees who lose their jobs can attribute it personality conflict.
Red Leader, focused, responsible, committed Blue Loyal to people, sincere, honest, moral White Tolerant, patient, cooperative, good listener Yellow Positive, friendly, optimistic, open Red Arrogant, bad listener, tactless, critical of others Blue Judgmental, unforgiving, suspicious, irrational White Timid, lazy, dependent, directionless Yellow Uncommitted, inconsistent, self-centered, rebellious Strengths & Weaknesses For each color
What we’ve talked about so far:Birth Order • Oldest/Only • Treated like an adult, given more responsibility, an example, independent. • Middle • Peacemaker, work hard for attention, calm and even-tempered, good/average student. • Youngest • Spoilt, strives for attention, matures quickly, easy-going about school, irresponsible
Chapter One: Introduction, History, and Research Methods • What is psychology? • The science of behavior and mental processes. • Science – because psychologist use scientific research in their studies to understand more. They collect data and analyze it. • Behavior & mental processes – the scope of what psychologists study is so vast. • All observable behaviors can be studied as well as mental processes including thoughts, feelings and dreams.
Psychology’s founding fathers:Wilhelm Wundt • The “Father” of psychology. • 1879 – first lab devoted to psychological experiments.
Psychology’s founding fathers: • 1892 – G. Stanley Hall founds the American Psychological Association (APA). • 1905 – Mary Whiton Calkins becomes first woman President of APA. • 1905 – Alfred Binet develops the first intelligence test.
Can any one psychological perspective answer all of psychology’s questions?
Psychological Perspectives • Psychological perspectives, schools of thought, and psychological approaches are all synonyms for ways psychologists classify collections of ideas. • Ex: Look at this real life possibility: Do you help the person who spilled their bags of groceries? Why do some people help when others don’t? • Each perspective has an explanation. • And there are six different ones…
#1: The Cognitive Perspective (pg. 11) • Popular since the 1960’s. • School of thought that focuses on how we take in, process, store and retrieve information. • Focuses on how people think! • People involved: James and Piaget • Ex: Helping the person with the groceries is a function of how we think about or interpret a situation. • We may choose to help the shopper because we think it will make us look good to others; or won’t because we think helping might make us look silly.
Psychology's founding fathers:William James • 1st American psychologist. • 1st psych textbook author – 1890. • Functionalism: • Goal of psychology was to study the functions of consciousness, the ways consciousness helps people adapt to their environment.
Psychology’s founding fathers:Jean Piaget • Worked on how children develop their thinking abilities. • Developmental and cognitive psychologist.
#2: Biological Perspective • School of thought to focuses on the physical structures and substances underlying a particular behavior, thought, or emotion. • People involved: • Ex: Could remind us that levels of a naturally occurring “feel good” chemical in our brain that could affect helping behavior. • Those lacking in this element could feel depressed and not help the person with their groceries.
#3: Socio-cultural Perspective • School of thought that focuses on how thinking or behavior changes in different settings or situations. • People involved: • Ex: Helping is more likely to occur if you’re with a couple of friends and 50 feet from your front door; and less likely if you’re in a crowded, big-city movie theatre lobby where few faces are familiar.
#4: Behavioral Perspective • School of thought that focuses on how we learn observable responses. • Believe people learn certain responses through rewards, punishments, and observation. • People involved: Pavlov and Watson • Ex: a person who helps has previously observed someone being rewarded for helpful behavior. • Like y’all and bonus cards?
Psychology’s Founding Fathers:Ivan Pavlov • 1906 – Pavlov’s dogs • He studied animal learning and fueled a move in psych toward interest in observable behavior and away from the self-examination of inner ideas and experiences.
Psychology’s founding fathers:John B. Watson • Launched behaviorism • Dominant perspective of the 20th century. • Behaviorist perspective: • Studied only observable and objectively describable acts. • Don’t waste time studying unconscious…can’t see it! • Made science more objective and scientific. • Today behaviorism focuses on learning through rewards and observation.
#5: Humanistic Perspective • School of thought that focuses on the study of conscious experience, the individual’s freedom to choose, and capacity for personal growth. • Healthy people strive to reach their full potential. • People involved: Maslow and Rogers • Ex: A person who has met their safety/physiological needs (hunger, thirst, shelter) would be able to reach out socially and help another person in need.
More on Humanistic… • Humanistic psychology (1960), 3rd force. • Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers • Emphasized conscious experience as the proper focus for psychology. • Humans have free will and will strive for full potential by making smart decisions. • Rejected that humans are controlled by rewards and reinforcements. • Maslow’s Hierarchy
#6: Psychodynamic Perspective • Contemporary name; formerly known as psychoanalytic perspective. • School of thought that focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts. • People included: Freud • Ex: Helpful behavior results from an unfulfilled childhood wish to have one’s mother accept one’s offer to help.
Psychology’s Founding Fathers:Sigmund Freud • Stereotypic therapist, with a pen and pencil listening to a patient on the couch. • 1900, introduced first complete theory of personality… psychoanalysis. • Publishes The Interpretation of Dreams.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective • Focused on abnormal behavior, which Freud attributed to unconscious drives and conflicts, often stemming from childhood. • Relied on personal observation and reflection instead of controlled laboratory experimentation as its means of discovery.
Problems with Psychoanalysis • Claimed to be scientific, but relied on self-reported reflections…not scientific methods. • Died in 1939, many theories have since been disproved and some out of date. • But some of his ideas are still with us: • Freudian slip • Anal-retentive • Psychodynamic Theory • Our unconscious thoughts, inner conflicts, and childhood experiences significantly affect our personality and behaviors.
New Areas of Psychology! • Behavior Genetics: • Focuses on how much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences and behavior. • Combo of biology and behaviorism. • A psychologist interested in behavior genetics might ask two questions: Is there a helpfulness trait? If so, is it triggered into action by growing up in a family that promotes and values helping those in need? • Yes? – and you have the trait and a family that promotes it, you will be helpful. • Thus, helping behavior is a product of learning and an inherited genetic trait.
New Areas of Psychology! • Evolutionary Psych: • Study behaviors that helped our ancestors survive long enough to reproduce successfully. • Positive Psych: • Focus: to study and promote original human functioning. • Martin Seligman • Promotes building positive qualities of people, not repairing the worst things.
Careers in Psychology: • Basic research: • Pure science or research • Research for the sake of finding new information and expanding the knowledge base of psychology. • Clinical Psychologies: • Diagnose and treat patients with psychological problems. • Largest number of professional psychologists.
Careers in Psychology • Applied Research: • Research designed to solve specific practical problems. • Marriage counselors, education counselors, organizational counselors, etc.