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Remaining History That You Should Know

Remaining History That You Should Know

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Remaining History That You Should Know

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  1. Remaining History That You Should Know A Trip Through Post-World War II History of Events In or Involving America

  2. Cold War: non-shooting war between democracy and communism • A. Berlin Airlift • 1. Germany divided after WWII • a. West Germany democratic (US/England/France control) • b. East Germany communist (Russia control) • c. Capital city of Berlin also divided • d. Free West Berlin 110 miles inside communist East Germany • 2. West Germany & West Berlin began to grow and prosper • 3. East Germany & East Berlin stagnant, grim, totalitarian, decay • 4. 24 June 1948 Stalin initiated blockade of rail & road traffic to E Berlin • 5. Stalin give Truman choice • a. Use tanks or Bulldozers to know down Soviet barriers • b. This would force WWIII • c. Option 2 surrender 2 ½ million West Berliners to communist • 6. Truman chose own option – supply by air (coal, food, medicine …) • 7. Nine months/277,804 flights/2,325,809 tons of supplies • a. US & British pilots called back to active duty • b. Rations to Berliners actually rose • c. 100 US & British pilots lost life • 8. Stalin open roads & rail lanes but…

  3. B. Koran Conflict 1. Korea Divided at 38th parallel a. Communist North Korea ruled by Kim Il-Sung b. Democratic South Korea led by Syngman Rhee c. Border clashes common as both side want entire country 2. 25 June 1950 NK invades (90,000) SK driving back SK/US troops 3. Soviet delegates boycott UN Security Council allows US to get UN… 4. NK invasion pointed to failure of new CIA 5. Pusan Perimeter a. US & SK troops encircled by NK b. Port city of Pusan SE Korea 6. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (70) put in charge of UN/US forces a. Planned sea borne invasion behind Red lines b. Surprising choice of Inchon c. Brilliant success d. NK troops now in retreat e. US troops cross into NK push toward Yalu River/border f. 200,000 Chinese cross border attack US forces g. US Marines trapped at Chosin Reservoir h. Greatest fighting retreat in history

  4. 7. MacArthur wants to take war to China a. Bomb bridges & staging areas in Southern China b. British battling Chinese in Malaysia c. French battling Chinese in Indo-China d. MacArthur wants to threaten Chinese w/A-bomb e. Truman opposes expanding war – containment only f. MacArthur releases statement justifying his option g. Truman fires MacArthur h. “Old soldiers never die, they just fade away” 8. Gen. Matthew Ridgeway named to replace MacArthur a. Outstanding commander but limited by rules b. Chinese & NK again push back across 38th parallel (more) c. US push back north to 38th d. War stagnates e. Series of small battles for strategic hills 9. Peace negotiations begin Nov 1951 10. Armistice signed July 1953 (cease fire not peace) 11. Korean War expand Cold War to Asia

  5. C. Bay of Pigs/Cuban Missile Crisis 1. Fidel Castro: guerrilla fighter over throws Fulgenico Batista in Cuba a. Talks democracy b. Establish ties to Russia c. Sets up Communist dictatorship d. Seize all foreign owned businesses (US largest %) e. Soviets strengthen Cuban military f. Plans to spread Communist revolution W. Hemisphere 2. US President Eisenhower fears spread a. Authorize CIA to train Cuban exiles (La Brigada) to invade b. Invasion to join w/resisters in mountains western Cuba c. Lead to popular uprising against Castro 3. John F. Kennedy elected President 1960 (stole election) a. Approved continuation of invasion plan b. Last minute before operation Kennedy make changes c. Wanted deniability of US involvement d. Eliminated US air cover for bombers flown by exiles e. Eliminated assistance from US warships in area f. Moved invasion from plains near mtns to swam-Bay of Pigs g. Move denied invaders any chance of escape or link up

  6. h. Reduced number of bombers to use in air strike i. Reduced number of air strikes j. Changes doomed invasion before even begin (long odds) k. 17 April 1961 invasion bog down immediately l. Drags on for 3 days-brave effort ends in death/capture/execute m. Member of Alabama Air Guard worked for CIA to train n. AAG fly missions against orders-4 killed/4 survive o. Failure propaganda coup for Castro 4. Soviets determine Kennedy weak & inexperienced 5. Summer 1962 CIA U-2 flights detect Soviet construction missile sites 6. 22 October 1962 Kennedy go on television a. Announce Russians had install long-range missiles in Cuba b. So close no reaction time for US if launched c. Announce naval quarantine to prevent further deliveries d. Demand sites be dismantled 7. Soviets continue construction 8. Nuclear war-destruction of world imminent 9. Secret negotiations a. US promise not to invade Cuba/remove missiles in Turkey b. Soviets remove missiles from Cuba

  7. Kennedy Assassination • A. 22 November 1963 President & First Lady travel to Texas • 1. Political appearance for reelection & fence mending • 2. Riding open car w/Gov. John Connally & wife • 3. Passing Texas Schoolbook Depository 3 shots fired from bldg • 4. Kennedy hit twice-throat & head/Connally hit once (2) • 5. Kennedy killed by 2nd shot to head • B. Casket w/body loaded onto Air Force One • C. VP Lyndon Johnson sworn in as President aboard AFO • D. Lee Harvey Oswald accused assassin • 1. Quickly apprehended/policeman shot/movie theater • 2. Defector to Soviet Union – Russian wife • 3. Fair Play for Cuba Committee • 4. He is assassinated in Dallas Police Station • E. Jack Ruby • 1. Kills Oswald • 2. Owner strip club/bar • 3. Connections in Dallas Police Department • 4. Connections to mob (Sam Giananca/Judith Campbell) • F. Events spawn numerous conspiracy theories

  8. G. Warren Commission 1. Appointed by Lyndon Johnson a. Chief Justice Earl Warren b. Rep. Gerald Ford 2. Investigate the killing of president 3. Determine Oswald acted alone (no CIA/mob/Cuban/Russian/Johnson) H. Ruby arrested contracts cancer in jail dies before trial I. Conspiracies still persist

  9. Civil Rights Movement • A. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) • 1. Supreme Court case • 2. Separate but equal legal under 14th Amendment • 3. Created problems for those opposed to segregated schools • B. Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, Kansas (1954) • 1. Linda Brown: black girl wanting to attend white school close to home • 2. Chose sociology rather than law to challenge • 3. NAACP chose work of sociologist Kenneth Clark • a. Segregation effects black self-esteem • b. Use black and white dolls • c. Even worse in integrated schools but ignored • 4. New Chief Justice Earl Warren • a. Right ideology not constitutional law • b. Case had waited until right make up for 9-0 decision • 5. Decision: separate but equal did not apply to education • 6. Some question need for case • a. Progress of change already began in 40s • b. Majority of whites favored ending discrimination

  10. C. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955) 1. Rosa Parks: black seamstress a. Refused to give eat on city bus to white man b. Arrested for violation of city ordinance (Parks not 1st) 2. Local pastor Dr. Martin Luther King protest a. Southern Christian Leadership Council b. Women’s Political Council c. Montgomery Improvement Council 3. Boycott of all public transportation by blacks a. Deprive city bus line of revenue (lose money) b. Walk or car pool c. King held tight discipline over boycott D. Central High School (09/1957) 1. Little Rock, Arkansas 2. School board won court order to integrate a. 9 blacks to enroll in Central High w/2000 whites b. Many communities & universities in state already integrated 3. Gov. Faubus moderate but wanted reelection a. Sent National Guard to prevent blacks entering school b. Guard joined by white mob

  11. c. Court order forced Faubus to withdraw guard d. Mob violence force Eisenhower to send in US Army… e. 1000 members 101st Airborne remain 4 months f. Blacks enrolled/attend school with protection E. Civil Rights Act 1957 1. Weaker than hoped by supporters 2. Created civil rights division w/i Justice Department 3. Created US Commission on Civil Rights 4. Brought federal gov’t into civil rights debate F. Greensboro NC (02/01/1960) 1. 4 NCA&T students 2. Woolworth’s Department Store lunch counter 3. Separate area for blacks but no counter 4. Students sit down at white lunch counter – refused service 5. Students sit at counter until store closes without violence 6. Sit-in grew to 29 then to 300 7. Sit-in protest spread to 100 cities 8. Caused formation of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee a. Organized other protest b. Marion Berry

  12. G. Freedom Riders 1. Push to end segregation in interstate bus travel 2. Blacks & whites board buses in north not blacks in back spread out a. Only on routes going south b. Defiance of Jim Crow laws c. Few regular riders on two buses out of Atlanta d. Greyhound terminal closed in Anniston e. Mob attacks-bus burned-riders injured (Shuttlesworth aid) f. Second bus goes to Anniston on to Birmingham-Trailways g. Beating on bus in Anniston by Klan h. Birmingham Police alert Klan of bus arrival time i. Bull Conner (Commissioner of Public Safety) ensure no… j. Riders black & white attempt to enter white lunchroom k. Several beaten – several escape unharmed l. National news present alerted by Klan & NSRP (J.B. Stoner) m. Two by-standers also beaten (one member of Klan) n. Undercover police present told when time up and police… o. Local newsmen beaten p. Gary Thomas Rowe led attack – worked for FBI

  13. H. Civil Rights Act of 1964 1. Effort by Kennedy to establish his legacy (passed after his death) 2. Opportunity provided by Gov. George Wallace of Alabama a. Stood in doorway blocking entrance of two blacks UA b. “Segregation now, Segregation tomorrow, Segregation… 3. Act prohibited segregation in public facilities and private… a. Restaurants & hotels main target b. Also prohibited discrimination in private employment… 4. Extended federal authority over private behavior 5. Despite promises not to it lead to affirmative action 6. Led to reduced requirement for under-represented groups 7. Required proof that not discriminating as opposed to proof of 8. Courts continued to use to expand federal power over time 9. Taken into areas never intended