ethnic violence n.
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Ethnic violence

Ethnic violence

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Ethnic violence

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  1. Ethnic violence By: Caitlin Fahey and Christina Reszel

  2. Definition • Ethnic violence (also known as ethnic terrorism or ethnically-motivated terrorism) refers to violence that is predominantly framed rhetorically by causes and issues related to ethnic hatred, though ethnic violence is more commonly related to political violence

  3. Rwanda Conflict • Tutsi (minority), who had controlled power for centuries • against Hutu (majority) who had come to power in the rebellion of 1959–62 and overthrown the Tutsi monarchy. • Tutsi group called RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) tried to overthrow the Hutu gov. • Hutus set out to systematically kill all Tutsi they could find, any age or sex also killing any moderate Hutus • UN created a safe zone for Hutus in southwest • millions of moderate Hutus went to Zaire

  4. Rwanda Cont. • 1994 mass murder • 800,000-1.1million • about 20% of the population killed • still struggles but operating as a democracy. • 2 million Hutus that helped fled thinking Tutsi would come back for them • RPF won and created coalition gov. so all sides are part of the gov.

  5. Cambodia • 1975-1979 • Prince Sihanouk got communists to form the khmer Rouge (1960) • Lon Nol overthrew prince Sihanouk (1970)? • 1975 Lon Nol was beaten by Khmer Rouge(pol pot= leader replacing Sihanouk) • 156,000 dead • Pol Pot tried to make country communist • People thrown out to have land for collective farms

  6. Cambodia Cont. • People refusing to leave were killed • Minorities (Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, and any Cambodians with thoughs ancestors) were killed • 1978 Vietnam overthrew the Khmer rouge • By 1989 Cambodia was back to self-charge • Prince Sihanouk was re-elected to lead new government

  7. Bosnia • Yugoslavia was a country with many different areas. • Bosnia Was one area within Yugoslavia. • 1980 Yugoslavian president Tito died. He had been communist. • Different part of Yugo wanted to be independent. • Serbia became powerful; leader was Slobodan Milosevic. • Croatia and Slovenia did become independent. • Milosevic wanted Bosnia to stay a part of Serbia, so did the Serbians living in Bosnia.

  8. Bosnia Cont. • 1995 he started fighting in a section of Bosnia called Srebrenica ; “ethnic cleansing” ( a nicer word for genocide). • U.N. tried to help, sent Dutch soldiers who set up a compound. Serbians started attacking, 6,000 Bosnians came inside; 20,000 more waiting outside • 7,500 men and boys over 13 years old were killed. • Late 1995 peace negotiations happened; separate countries named. • The Serbian project in Bosnia had brought about a huge internal displacement of the population from which the people have not yet recovered

  9. Sudan • 1962- Civil war begins in the south- cause’s unrest for MANY years • Omar Hassan al-Bashir came to power in 1989 - overthrew the Gov. • Introduced the Islamic Sharia law • 2004January - rebel uprising in western region of Darfur • pro-government Arab Janjaweed militias are carrying out the killing of non-Arab villagers in Darfur. – Genocide • 2005January - Government and southern rebels sign a peace deal • 2006- Fighting continued • 2011 July - South Sudan gains independence. • 2012 April - Sudanese warplanes raid the Bentiu area in South Sudan.

  10. Sudan Cont. • The state/ Gov. controls the media – one sided propaganda •  Many refugees have fled to Chad and are living in refugee camps • Omar Hassan al-Bashir - two international arrest warrants - issued by the International Criminal Court in The Hague - on charges of genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity

  11. Palestine • Zionist(for the reestablishment and the development and protection of a Jewish nation) are ethnically cleansing against Arabs • 1947 – Opinion that Arabs should be transferred out of Palestine • Wanted to establish a Jewish state • Palestinian Arab model of incessant terrorism for almost one hundred years

  12. Palestine Cont. • Civil War -->pervasive anti-Jewish, destruction of Jewish property, sporadic outbreaks of violence, and massacres were ongoing events • Propaganda for ethnic cleansing: in many books • estimated 6.4 million Palestinian refugees living in dirty refugee camps- Lebanon, Jordan, Arab countries • 1948 Israeli War of Independence when 800,000 Arabs either fled for their safety or were forced out of their homes by Israeli forces

  13. Kenya • Started in 2007 after a presidential election • episodes of violence - the burning of a church with women and children inside • occurred in mostly Kalenjin and Isiolo areas . • trying to balkanize (divide a territory into small, hostile states) the country along ethnic lines • The death toll stood at more than 1,000, with much of the fighting, like the voting, along ethnic lines.

  14. Kenya Cont. • one of the most corrupt, deeply entrenched political systems on the continent. • 1,100 people are believed to have been killed in organized attacks and more than 300,000 were driven from their homes or fled in the violence • Four important Kenyans two of them presidential candidates, were ordered to stand trial at the International Criminal Court in The Hague on charges of crimes against humanity

  15. Summary • Refugees can be forced to leave • Feel the need to escape for safety • "Internally Displaced Persons" who are not officially refugees because they have not left their own country • No place to go

  16. Works Cited • "M.EP. - Expulsions and Population Transfers to Solve Ethnic Conflict." M.EP. - Expulsions and Population Transfers to Solve Ethnic Conflict. Web. 13 May 2012. <>. • "Refugees." Geography. Web. 13 May 2012. <>. • "Sudan Profile." BBC News. BBC, 05 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 May 2012. <>.