Imperialism • Defined • The control of a stronger or more powerful nation/country over a weaker region or country. • The stronger country controls the political, social and economic life of the weaker region or nation.
Types of Imperialist Control • Colony • Direct and total control by the mother country. • Britain held control of the American Colonies.
Types of Imperialist Control • Protectorate • Native ruler remains in place but foreign advisors controlling the government
Types of Imperialist Control • Sphere of Influence • The foreign nation has exclusive rights to develop, usually economic goods, in the nation.
Imperialism • Imperialism the spawn of the Industrial Revolution • The factory system needed natural resources • Europe had coal and iron ore but items like cotton and rubber needed to be imported
Imperialism • Wealthy industrial nations began colonizing regions with little regard to compensating the natives • Resources sent back to Europe were made into finished products • Finished products were then shipped back to the colonized nation and sold at a higher price • Oh yah, the colonized nation had to buy the finished goods from the colonial power because the colonial power would not let the colonized nation trade with any other nations • The colonial nation became rich while the colonized nation became poor • Sounds like exploitation-like the factory owners who exploited the factory workers during the Industrial Revolution
Imperialism • Soon every European nation began to colonize every part of the world • France-Africa, Vietnam • Britain-China, India, Africa • Japan-China • Belgium-Africa • Germany-Africa, parts of China
Imperialism • Results of Imperialism • Colonies became exposed to European ideas • Resources vital to many of these colonies were stripped from them and raw material became depleted in some areas • Pollution became a global problem and was no longer limited to just industrialized nations • Europe and the United States became the centers for manufactured goods
Industrial Revolution/Imperialism Connection • Wealthy industrialized nations had better weapons • Artillery • Accurate rifles • Gunboats • Machine Guns • This allowed Industrialized nations to overrun poorly armed native warriors
Causes of Imperialism • Military Motives • Bases for military and naval ships. • Nations competed to gain control of an area before a rival could gain control. • A nation with many colonies had power and security. • A global empire.
Causes of Imperialism • Military Motives • Captain Alfred Mahan • Argued that nations that controlled the seas prevailed or could rule the world. • Book, The Influence of Sea Power Upon History
Industrial Revolution/Imperialism Connection • Motives for colonizing • The need for raw materials to keep the industrial Revolution going • Timber • Rubber • Coal • Iron ore • chemicals
Exploitation • Western leaders often struck deals with local businessmen or politicians for raw materials • Often times these deals hurt the local economy and the people • Money was exchanged between the western leaders and the businessmen and politicians and the local workers just became poor • These countries became known as “Banana Republics”
Old Imperialism • From 1500 to 1800. • European nations develop colonies in Americas, India, Southeast Asia, Africa and China. • European power in these areas was limited. • European nations viewed colonies as more of a liability because of the cost to run the colony.
New Imperialism • From 1870 to 1914. • European nations had developed strong centralized governments. • Strong sense of nationalism • Most European nations, America and Japan had become industrialized and became aggressive in looking for natural resources. • Need to fuel the factories with raw materials • European nations focused on weakened empires in Asia, India, and Africa. • Most were easy targets for the well developed militaries of European nations.
New Imperialism • Results of Imperialism • Prime Minister of Britain Benjamin Disraeli said imperialism was a call to greatness where a nation was to fulfill its destiny. • There was widespread public support for imperialism in industrialized nations. • Why? • Social Darwinism • The White Man’s Burden
Causes of Imperialism • Social Darwinism • Social Darwinism encouraged imperialism • Most Europeans were very ethnocentric and viewed mostly non European cultures as barbarians or uncivilized. • Survival of the fittest competition between nations. • Social Darwinist argued it was natural for a stronger nation to ruler weaker nations because the dominant nation or races rose to the top because of the idea of survival of the fittest • European nations saw themselves as superior and more fit to run other nations • Britain was the most industrialized, and thus the most powerful and the most fit-Britain was superior to all other nations
Causes of Imperialism • The White Man’s Burden • While Europeans felt they were superior to other nations they also felt they had a moral obligation to these weaker nations • Europeans felt that they had to teach these nations how to be civilized-Even though most were already civilized • In reality Europeans wanted to teach the world how to be European
Causes of Imperialism • White Man’s Burden • Rudyard Kipling summoned up the moral obligation in his poem The White Man’s Burden • As Europeans imperialized the world to advance their own economic, military, and political needs, Kipling called these things burdens.
Causes of Imperialism • Kipling said that it was the duty of European nations to • Conquer these half-devil-half child nations • Convert them to Christianity • Make them as civilized as the rest of Europe • Europeans knew what was best for the world-Being European
Imperialism Africa The Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa • The focus of most of Europe’s imperialist activities in the 19th century was Africa. • The demand for raw materials, markets, and the prestige of having colonies drove imperialist Europe to Africa.
The Scramble for Africa • Prior to the Industrial Revolution European interest in Africa was very limited • Up until the 1880’s only the coastlines of Africa had been colonized, exploited or even explored • Gold, ivory and slaves had been taken from these colonies • Europeans saw Africa and her ports as just stopping off points for merchant ships headed for India or China
Scramble for Africa • Between 1807 and 1820 the slave trade ended in Africa. • No new slaves were exported from Africa at this time • Some former slaves returned to Africa-The country of Liberia was set up by former American slaves • While slavery ended in Africa, within 50 year Europeans will colonize most of Africa and subject the Africans in their own homeland
External Reasons for Imperialism • After the 1880’s Europeans had technological superiority due to the Industrial Revolution • Europeans fought with machine guns/Africans had spears and bows. • Better maps • Easier travel with the steam ship and railroads. Made travel on water or land faster and allowed for close contract with colonies. • Medical treatment of malaria with the drug quinine.
Internal Reasons for Imperialism • African nations lacked unity • No common language • Lack of common culture • Wars between different groups • Lack of technology
Egypt • Between 1517 and 1882 the Ottoman’s ruled Egypt • The Ottoman Empire was seen as weak and local rulers called beys controlled regions of Egypt • In the early 1800’s Napoleon attempted to gain control of Egypt-however in 1805 Muhammed Ali defeated both the French and the Ottomans and gained control of Egypt
Egypt • During Ali’s rule Egypt began to Industrialize • Egypt expanded its agricultural production • Egypt began to increase its production of cotton and began selling the cotton to the British Empire
Egypt • In 1869 the Egyptians worked with the French to create the Suez Canal • The canal linked the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean which eliminated the need to travel around Africa for trade • The canal drained the finances of Egypt and Egypt’s economy began to suffer
Egypt • The canal was extremely important to the British who could now sail quicker to India • The Egyptian Government in an effort to raise money began to sell stocks in the canal • The British Government bought a majority of the stock and by 1882 controlled Suez Canal
Egypt • Because the British now controlled the canal they politically moved into Egypt and made Egypt a protectorate • The French were pushed out of Egypt and focused on areas of North Africa
The Scramble for Africa • King Leopold of Belgium • In the 1870’s Leopold establishes a trade in the Congo River basin. • Leopold forced Africans to work on rubber plantations • Harsh taxation and forced labor leads the world to call for humanitarian changes in the Congo.
The Berlin Conference • Rules for the Colonization of Africa • In 1884 European powers trying to colonize Africa were coming into conflict. • To avoid further conflict 14 European powers set up rules for colonizing Africa. • No members of the African community were present.
The Berlin Conference • In 1884 Otto von Bismarck hosted the Berlin Conference • Bismarck wanted to settle disputes to colonial land differences in the African Congo • By the end of the conference rules had been set up for colonizing
The Berlin Conference • The agreement between the European powers specified • European powers could acquire colonies in the following methods. • Through occupation. • Notifying other European states of the occupation and claim. • Showing that the European power could control the area.
The Berlin Conference • Results of the Conference • In 1850 most of Africa had been free. • By 1914 only Liberia and Ethiopia were free of European control.
Result of Colonization • Europeans did not find a new market for goods in Africa • Africans had little currency to buy goods. • Instead Europeans found that Africa had a great deal of wealth and raw materials to supply the European nations
Raw Materials Europeans developed cash-crop plantations Peanuts Palm oil Cocoa Rubber These plantations displaced food crops Africans needed to feed their families. Draw a cash crop economy Wealth Africa contain rich mineral resources The Belgian Congo Tin Copper South Africa Gold Diamonds Result of Colonization
The British In Africa • Britain was the most active and successful in colonization of Africa. • Nigeria • South Africa • East Africa • Egypt • Sudan
British Problems in Africa • South Africa • Prior to British colonization of South Africa Dutch farmers called Boers settled in South Africa. • In the early 1800’s Britain acquired South Africa from the Dutch. • The Boers or Afrikaners, Dutch farmers, moved north into South Africa to an area known as Transvaal. • While in South Africa the Boers found gold in the region and the British tried to move in an take the territory from the Dutch
British Problems in Africa • The Boers clashed with the British in the Boer War (1899-1902). • The war pitted European nation against European nation. • The war was known as a total war and both guerrilla warfare and commando tactics were used.
Problems in South Africa • The British won the Boer War and took over all of South Africa • The British ended up with the gold and diamond mines and used the natives to mine the wealth
British Problems in Africa • The Zulus were strong African nation who clashed with the British. • Superior British technology and weapons defeated the Zulu. • This was a common result for those who resisted European Imperialism.
Problems in South Africa • South Africa became an extensive colony of Britain • The British set a British form of government • By 1910 South Africa had its own constitution and became a commonwealth of the British Empire (The Union of South Africa) • South Africa was given its own self rule
Problems in South Africa • The new constitution only allowed white males to vote • Native Africans had very few rights • In 1912 educated Black Africans organized and formed the African National Congress (ANC) in a effort to gain rights for blacks • The ANC would lead a strong nationalistic movement for freedoms for blacks in the 70’s and 80’s.
Positives Reduced local warfare Brought hospitals and schools to Africa. Increased life spans and literacy rates. Gained railroads, dams, and telephone lines Africa products were valued on the international market. Negatives Africans lost their land Lost of independence European powers were often placed in direct control of the colony Large amounts of the African population died of European diseases. Smallpox Loss of traditional culture Natives were forced to adopt European customs and cultures Forced labor Impact of Imperialism in Africa
Impact of Imperialism in Africa • Division of African nations by European boundaries • The boundaries set up by Europeans in 1884 Berlin Conference were based on European wants and not on native’s needs • Tribal lands were cut in half while other rival nations were forced together by the new boundaries • These European boundaries, which are still in place today, disrupted customs and cultures of Africans
China • Africa was divided into Colonies and ruled directly by Europeans. • China came under Imperialist control by using Spheres of Influence. • Europeans used leases and concessions to gain control of China.