Academictitles What’swhat and who’swho
Basics • Highereducation is what happens AFTER high school • 2 levels of highereducation • Undergraduatecoursework • Associate (after 2 years) • Bachelor degree (after 3 years) • Graduatecoursework • Masterdegree • Doctoraldegree
The differencebetweenlevels • Undergraduate coursework is a basic educational foundation within a given program of study following high school. • The course work includes a general cluster of knowledge that promotes a well rounded education. Thus, the student is exposed to a variety of areas, not just their chosen field of study. • These areas would include general education courses such as First Language, Math/statistics, History, Laboratory Science, courses in Humanities, Economic and Social Sciences to mention a few. • These “general” courses would be tightly coupled with the students Major Requirements and Major Elective Requirements. • Major requirements: mandatory for degree in “chosen major” • Major Elective Requirements: mandatory for chosen “specialization” • Graduate course work - in most cases - is very specific and particular to one field of study. • Thus, the graduate study is advanced course work which follows undergraduate course work.
National variation: EU • Principlesforgraduate and undergraduatedegrees are set in the socalled “Bologna agreements” • all EU educationministriesagreed in Bologna to reform theirnationaleduction system to adherewith the UK/US-inspiredundergraduate-graduate-courseworkprinciple (regulatingso-called level 5, 7 and 7 degrees) • All degree-programsremain to this moment nationallydefinedbyoneor the otherlocalgovernmentagency • But the Bologna agreementsstipulatethatfrom “Bologna onwards” all government-subsidized colleges and universitiesagree to accept studycreditsgained in “foreign” EU-institutesthroughan as yetbilateralinter-institute “exchange rate” called ECTS orEuropeanCredits.
National variations: f.e. UK • Descriptors for graduate and undergraduate degrees are set by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (QAA) in their document "The Framework for Higher Education Qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland". (FHEQ) • A bachelor degree is specified as a level 6 course • A masterdegree is specified as a level 7 course • Though level 5 associate studies do excist as yet we couldn’tfindspecificdegreedefinitions. • Closest I canfind is “A-levels”: youchoose the courses, not a specificcourse program
US situation • information on the difference between varying levels of tertiary (post high school) education is given on the US Department of Education website. • In the US there are 6 main levels of post high school degrees: • Undergraduate courses • Level 1: freshman-years Associate Degrees • Level 2: senior years Bachelors Degrees • Graduate courses • Level 3: First-Professional Degrees professional doctoral degree • F.e. medical professional doctoral = MD • Level 4: Master's Degrees Master • Post-graduate courses • Level 5: Intermediate Graduate Qualifications f.e. MBA • Level 6: Research Doctorate Degrees Academic Doctoral degree • F.e. medical doctoral = PhD
Confusion: which school does what? • Confusion: • Samewords, different meaning in different languages and countries • General rule in Western Culture countries • College • degrees up to level 6, no research facilities • University • level 7-degrees, research facilities, more prestigious
“Deviations” • In roman cultures • “collège” is a secondary school • “collègeGrande Ecole” is “higher” then a universityforengeneeringdegrees • UK • Onlyuniversitiescangivedegrees • Colleges can’tunlessthey are university colleges whichmeansthey have associateswith a “real” universitythatcertifiestheirdegrees. • In Australia and Canada • Onlyuniversitiescangivedegrees • They “do” level 7 degreesonly • Colleges givediplomas and certificates • They “do” up to bachelor degrees (usually a 4 yeartrajectory) • US: • A “college” is aninstitute of highereducationspecialised in one are the other subject • F.e. business college • A “university” is a conglomerate of several colleges • F.e. Harvarduniversity • A renounhighereducationinstitutecanbeboth a college or a universityoraninstitute • F.e. Dartmour college, Harvarduniversity, MIT
Note • US “Community college” • College that offers degrees up to level 5 (2-year programs) • Community colleges can offer trade and technical certifications and training as well as the first 2 years of a 4-year program, but they are unable to grant Bachelor's degrees.
Struttingyour stuff • Community colleges US • Basic argument: time investmentvs return • Associateonlytakes 2 years, bachelor 4 • Associateeducationfocussesonspecific majors skippingsome are all of the “generals” in a bachelor program • Possibility of transferingassociate program creditsdirectly to universitycredits in same “specific” avoiding the “vocational bachelor detour” in science and arts • Salaryjump • from high school to associatedegree: 15% • Fromassociate to bachelor: anywherefrom 0% to 5% • Associate studies = open enrollment • Your tempo, yourfinances, your timing, your “composition”
Sources • Associate: • http://www.communitycollegereview.com/articles/71 • http://in.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20080527063733AA7QjKo(UK equivalent) • College vsuniversity: • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_a_college_and_a_university • Graduatevsundergraduate • http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_difference_between_an_undergraduate_and_a_graduate_degree