Download
titles n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Titles PowerPoint Presentation

Titles

143 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

Titles

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Titles Self-assembling plants and integration across ecological scales Roderick Hunt (Exeter, UK) Ric Colasanti (Corvallis, OR) with acknowledgements to Philip Grime (Sheffield, UK) Andrew Askew (Sheffield, UK) Presentation ready

  2. Community image A community of self-assembling virtual plants patches of resource depletion showing above- and below-ground

  3. CSR type, frame 1 A single propagule … … about to grow

  4. ditto f. 2

  5. ditto f. 3

  6. ditto f. 4

  7. ditto f. 5

  8. ditto f. 6

  9. ditto f. 7

  10. ditto f. 8

  11. ditto f. 9

  12. ditto f. 10

  13. ditto f. 11

  14. ditto f. 12

  15. ditto f. 13

  16. ditto f. 14

  17. ditto f. 15

  18. ditto f. 16

  19. ditto f. 17

  20. ditto f. 18

  21. ditto f. 19

  22. ditto f. 20 Abundant growth above- and below-ground … … with zones of resource depletion

  23. Binary tree diagram Above-ground binary tree ( = shoot system) Each plant is built like this … A branching module Above-ground array Above-ground binary tree base module Below-ground array Below-ground binary tree base module … only a diagram, not a painting ! An end module Below-ground binary tree ( = root system)

  24. Explanation End-modules capture resources: Light and carbon dioxide from above-ground Water and nutrients from below-ground Parent or offspring modules can pass resources to any adjoining modules … so whole plants can grow

  25. Explanation The virtual plants interact with their environment and neighbours They possess most properties of real individuals and populations For example …

  26. Validation Size Time Partitioning between root and shoot S-shaped growth curves Allometric coefficient Individual size Self-thinning line Foraging towards resources Population density Below-ground resource Functional equilibria Self-thinning in crowded populations

  27. Explanation The foregoing plants all have the same functional specification (modular rulebase) … not yet comparative plant ecology ! But specifications can be changed if we want some plants to behave differently … … and we can simulate plant functional types

  28. Definitions Some working definitions … Species within one functionalgroup share a single important trait Species within one functionaltype share a similar set of traits.

  29. Implications … and some implications Functional types are multi-species levels of organization, lying above the population but below the community A single species can simultaneously be a member of several functional groups, e.g. both ‘legume’ and ’woody’ … … but a member of only one functional type, e.g. ‘K-strategist’

  30. Why use? Why use functional types? They reduce the high dimensionality of real plant life “ There are many more actors on the stage than roles that can be played ”

  31. ... continued PFTs give a continuous view of vegetation even when relative abundances and identities of species are in flux Tools exist to allocate types to species (and type-mixes to whole communities) Large-scale (or cross-scale) studies of effects of environment or management on (e.g.) biodiversity, vulnerability and stability become possible

  32. PFTs in CA How do we recreate basic PFTs within the self-assembling model ? … we change the modular rulebases controlling morphology, physiology and reproduction … … but we must begin to model at a high enough level to get “ airborne ” ... we need access to the emergent properties

  33. Building blocks So we don’t build with these … we build with these !

  34. Specifications Building a set of PFTs … Type Morphology Physiology Reproduction module size, tissue longevity, flowering speed, resource demand RGR, SLA, allocation, decomposability propagule size 1 Large Fast Slow 2 Small Slow Slow 3 Small Fast Fast 4 Medium Medium Slow 5 Small Medium Medium 6 Medium Fast Medium 7 Medium Medium Medium

  35. Explanation Three levels in each of our three ‘ super-traits ’ = 27 possible PFTs … … but we model only 7 types the other 20 would include Darwinian Demons that do not respect evolutionary tradeoffs

  36. Explanation Competition between two different types of plant …

  37. R-CSR-R, frame 1 Small size, rapid growth and fast reproduction Medium size, moderately fast in growth and reproduction

  38. ditto f. 2

  39. ditto f. 3

  40. ditto f. 4

  41. ditto f. 5

  42. ditto f. 6

  43. ditto f. 7

  44. ditto f. 8

  45. ditto f. 9 (Red enters its 2nd generation)

  46. ditto f. 10

  47. ditto f. 11

  48. ditto f. 12

  49. ditto f. 13

  50. ditto f. 14