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Electric “Power and Energy” Engineering Education in USA: A Status Report, Issues and Challenges

Electric “Power and Energy” Engineering Education in USA: A Status Report, Issues and Challenges

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Electric “Power and Energy” Engineering Education in USA: A Status Report, Issues and Challenges

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  1. Electric “Power and Energy” Engineering Education in USA: A Status Report, Issues and Challenges P. K. Sen, Fellow IEEE, PhD, PE Professor of Engineering Colorado School of Mines Golden, Colorado 80401 Senior Consultant: NEI Electric Power Engineering, Inc. pksen@neiengineering.com IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference Chattanooga, TN April 11, 2011

  2. Presentation “Topics!!” • Brief Historical Perspective • Current Status • Academics Perspective • ABET & Curriculum Issues • Fresh Look • Future Challenges • Conclusion & Additional Reading 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  3. Historical Perspectives Hi-Lihgtesand Snapshots • Inception - 1930 (≈ 50 yrs.) • 1931 - 1950 (≈ 20 yrs.) • 1951 - 1985 (≈ 35 yrs.) • 1986 – Present (≈ 25 yrs.) 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  4. Brief History of Electric Power Industry: Important Milestones Early Days (Inception – 1930): (~ 50 Years) • (1879) Light Bulb Invented by Edison • (1882) Pearl Street Generating Plant (DC) • (1882) Poly-phase Induction Motor (AC) Invented by Tesla • (1883) Transformer Invented by Stanley • (1884) Steam Turbine Invented by Parsons • (1885 - 93) Westinghouse, Edison, Tesla (DC Vs. AC) • (1895) Niagara Falls Power Station (3-Phase, AC) History • Small and Regional Companies, Little Interconnection and Transmission Facilities • Technological Improvements in Generation and Transmission followed by “High Growth” • Competition, Consolidation, and “Monopoly” • “Holding Companies” and Their Abuses • Federal Government Intervention 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  5. 1931- 1950 (~20 yrs.) “High Growth”, Technological Development, Interconnection, Government Participation & Intervention 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  6. Brief History of Electric Power Industry: Important Milestones • (1935)Public Utilities Holding Company Act (PUHCA) – Reorganized Electric Utility Industry and Created Effective Regulation (State and Federal) • (1936)Federal Power Act (FPA) and Creation of Federal Power Commission (FPC) Later Became “FERC” 1 • Tremendous Growth of Hydropower (US Government- TVA, BPA, COE) and High Growth of Electricity Usage • Economic Prosperity, Improved Quality of Life ► Electricity • (1935) Rural Electrification Administration 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  7. 1951- 1985 (~25 yrs.) Modernization of Electric Power Industry, “Growth” Continues, Technological Development, More Interconnection, Government Regulation 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  8. (1965)North East Power Failure(1968)North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) 2 West East Growth of Electric Power Industry Continues 1965 North-East Power Failure No. of Regions (9) West and East/Texas !!! Reliability and Security of Electric Grid 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  9. Technological Improvements: Generation Larger (the “Better”) Units are More Efficient - Produce “Cheaper” Electricity. “Central Power Plants” 1300 MW (Nuclear) 600 MW (Coal) MW (Unit Size) 60 -200MW (CC) 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  10. Technological Improvements: Transmission Higher Voltage Reduces Losses, Improve Voltage Regulation, Cheaper to Transmit Electricity Over Longer Distances. Interconnection for Reliability, Resource Sharing and Cost Minimization Future: 1,000 kV or 1,200 kV 765 kV 500 kV 287 kV 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  11. Brief History of Electric Power Industry: Important Milestones 3 • (1973) Oil Embargo and Energy Crisis • (1974) Energy Reorganization Act and Creation of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) • (1976) Formation of the “Department of Energy” (Split from the “Department of the Interior”) • (1977) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Created- More Authority and Broader Responsibility: FPC (1935) Abolished Important Events in Nuclear Industry: (1979) Three Mile Island Accident (1986) Chernybal Nuclear Power Plant Accident 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  12. Historical Perspectives of Deregulating Electric Power Industry PURPA (1978): Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act 4 DG Aplications and Renewable Energy 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  13. What Happened to Electricity & Power Engineering Education ? Perception !! Power is a Dead-End Industry • Massive Grid and Interconnection • “Cheap and Reliable” Electricity • People (and Academia) Forgot About It and Took It for Granted!! • The Need and The Glamour is Gone • Very Little R & D Money • Universities Dropped “Power Education” - Massive Exodus! No Challenge!! 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  14. What Happened in Non-Power Industry? • Invention / Advent of Transistor Technology • Digital Electronics and Computer Industry • Cold War and Defense Industry • NASA and Space Research • Advancement of Communication Industry • Home Electronics Applications – TV and Gadgets!! 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  15. Power Industry Salary High-Tech Industry 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  16. 1986 – Present (most recent ~25 years) Slower Growth, Higher Prices, Growth Restriction, More Government Intervention, Use of Renewable Energy, Sustainability De-Regulation & Restructuring 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  17. ≈ 40 Years 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  18. Historical Perspectives of Deregulating Electric Power Industry 5 (1992): Energy Policy Act (2005): Energy Policy Act (2007): Energy Independence and Security Act 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  19. 6 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  20. What Happened in Classroom? Electric Circuit Theory Class • Steady-State Analyses for Sinusoidal Function – Reduced to perhaps 1-2 Lectures Only! • Phasor Diagram – Forgotten! • Concept of Power, Power Factor and Reactive Power, etc. Not Discussed at all and Never Understood Vocabulary Changed ! 3-Phase Circuit? What is that? 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  21. What Happened To Electrical Engineering Education ? MW become mW kV become mV kA become μA 60 Hz  60 GHz 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  22. What Happened in the Classroom? Electric Circuit Theory Class Who Taught the Circuits Classes? 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  23. What Happened in Classroom? Electric Circuit Theory Class • Signals and Noise, z-Transform • Discrete System • PSpice • Frequency Domain Analysis • MATLAB • Transients, etc. • Preparing Students to take (Analog & Digital) Electronics, Power Electronics, Communication Theory Classes! What is Taught Today? 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  24. Paradigm Shift in the 21st Century!! • 2003 Blackout and Reliability • 9/11 and Energy Security • Dependence on “Electricity” • Global Warming, Green Power • Sustainability and Renewable Energy • Political Pressure, ACTs of 2005 and 2007 • High Gas and Oil Prices • Dependence on Foreign Oil • Maintain Economic Growth and Quality of Life • Earthquake / Tsunami in Japan & Nuclear Power 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  25. Who is going to teach? Where are the “Qualified” Faculty Members? Preparing the U.S. Foundation for Future Electric Energy Systems: A Strong Power and Energy Engineering Workforce, U.U. Power and Energy Engineering Workforce Collaborative, IEEE Power Engineering Society, April 2009 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  26. Typical ABET Degree Requirements Engineering Accreditation Commission (EAC): No. of Institutions 397 No. of Programs 1,933 [2009] “BS” – Electrical 320 Mechanical 304 Civil 235 Computer 223 Chemical 171 Others 711 ≈550 http://www.abet.org/Linked Documents-UPDATE/Annual_Reports/2009 ABET Annual Report.pdf 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  27. Typical ABET Degree Requirements Engineering Accreditation Commission (EAC): Typical EE Degree Requirements ≈ 128 Credits • Basic Science and Math 34 30 30 • Freshman / Sophomore Elective - 10 - • Electrical Engineering Core 25 26 48 • Advanced Core - 9 - • Electrical Electives 35 23 18 • Design - 3 - • Social Science & Humanistic 22 21 18 • Free Elective 12 6 12 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  28. “Electrical Power Engineering Education Resources: 2005-2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society Committee Report, • The Power Engineering Education Committee (PEEC) Task Force on Educational Resources,”” • IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 23(1), pp. 1-24, February 2008. (Data Modified By PK Sen) 320 EE # of Faculty Members: Tier 1: 6-10 Tier 2 : 4-5 Tier 3: 2-3 Tier 4 + 5: * < 2 Total Number of Respondents = 121 (USA = 112, Canada = 9)

  29. Tier 1 Tier 2 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  30. Designing the “Very First Course”!(PKSen’s Rule) • Knowing Your Students’ Background (Poor Foundation) • Undoing the Damage done in the Electric Circuits, Physics, EM Theory, Electronics and Computer Engineering Classes • Make Them Think Differently (Practical like a Future Engineer and a Problem Solver!) • Discuss Future Needs and Job Opportunities • Keep the Course Simple but Challenging and Entertaining • Re-teach Ohm’s Law, Kirchoff’s Laws, 1-Phase and 3-Phase Circuits, P-Q-S & Power Factor, Magnetic Circuits and Basic Material Science) 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  31. First Course in Electric Power and Energy Samples • Basics of Electric Power and Energy • Fundamentals of Electric Machinery (& Laboratory) • Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications • Power Systems Analysis • Power Quality • Power Electronics  2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  32. Conclusions, Reflection and Parting Thoughts • Evaluate the Needs of the 21st Century Electric Power and Energy Industry • Re-evaluate How we Prepare Our Future Engineers and Technical Personnel • Understand the Academic Environment – • Basic Course, Training and Curriculum Development and Needs • Shortage of “Qualified” Faculty Members, and Laboratory Facilities • Undergraduate vs. Graduate Programs • 2-yrs. Community College, 4-yrs. BS in Electrical Technology Degree Program and 4-yrs. BS in Electrical Engineering Program • Internship, Co-op Education and Part-Time Job Opportunities • Training Opportunities for Young Faculty Members with Practically No Industrial Applications Knowledge • Active Role, Direct Industry Involvement in Academic Issues – Curriculum Development, Hiring Faculty Members, Alumni Influence!! • Be Forward Looking Rather than Following the Trend!! • Future Research and Development Opportunities 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  33. Thank You. pksen@neiengineering.com 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  34. References • Preparing Skilled Engineering Workforce for the Smart Grid, Wanda Reader, President, IEEE PES; GridWeek 2009, Workforce Development: The Human Side of the Smart Grid, September 24,2009. • Electrical Power Engineering Education Resources: 2005-2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society Committee Report, The Power Engineering Education Committee (PEEC) Task Force on Educational Resources, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 23(1), pp. 1-24, February 2008. (Data Modified By PK Sen) • http://www.abet.org/Linked Documents-UPDATE/Annual_Reports/2009 ABET Annual Report.pdf • Preparing the U.S. Foundation for Future Electric Energy Systems: A Strong Power and Energy Engineering Workforce, U.S. Power and Energy Engineering Workforce Collaborative, IEEE Power Engineering Society, April 2009. 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  35. Advanced (Elective) Courses in Electric Power and Energy • Advanced Power Distribution Engineering • High Voltage AC and DC Transmission • Power Systems Operation and Control • High Voltage Engineering • Advanced Power Electronics • Advanced Power Systems Protection & Relaying • Energy Systems Stability • Advanced Electrical Machines & Dynamics • Wind Energy 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  36. Advanced (Elective) Courses in Electric Power and Energy • Advanced Solar Technology and PV Power • Renewable Energy Integration & Dist. Generation • Energy Market and Energy Economics • Cyber Security and Power Grid • Distribution Automation • Variable Speed Drive • Advances in Substation Engineering • Computer Methods in Power Systems Engineering • Elect. Power Ind.- Restructuring, Deregulation and Policy 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  37. Additional Comments • Text Book, Class Notes and Handouts • Laboratory Component • Class Size and Field Trips • Video-Tape and Slide Show Presentation • Open-Ended Very Simple Design Project • Prepare for FE and Professional Engineering (PE) Exam 2011 IEEE IAS Rural Electric Power Conference

  38. Basic Structure of Modern Electric Power System Central Power Plant Large Generation “De-Regulation” FERC Order 888, 889 and 2000 G G G Transmission G Large Load / Customer (Bulk Power) Wind Farm G (Bulk Power) GRID Distribution Load Load G Small DG Generation G