Human Capital Case of Jack Smith Learning to Learn
Knowledge Nuggets • Learning is a relative permanent change in behavior, affect and/or cognitions. • We can not tell if learning has occurred until it manifests itself in observable behavior. • Every task has a learning curve.
Knowledge Nuggets • Learning focuses on the acquisition AND utilization of Knowledge • Explicit/ Declarative • Procedural • Cultural • Tacit
Knowledge Nuggets • Learning involves frequent, distinctive feedback • Accurately Perceived • Source of Feedback must be credible • Timely • Behavioral, not Personal • Remedial Instruction • Feedback is a “Necessary But Not Sufficient” condition for learning
Knowledge Nuggets • Learning benefits from an environment in which: • It is safe to make mistakes • The learner is motivated to learn (extrinsically and intrinsically) • Learning and work environment are similar (adds in transfer) • There is amble time for practice • Appropriate behavior is modeled • There is direct as well as vicarious reinforcement • Learning is compromised when only “success” is rewarded and “failures” are punished.
Knowledge Nuggets • When learning is compromised, people and organizations engage in first order learning and are unable to update assumptions, expectations and understanding. • When learning is NOT compromised, “double loop” learning occurs, in which failures, shortcomings, and disappointments help update theories in use.
Knowledge Nuggets • Learning is an iterative process. It requires trial and error (natural experimentation) or structured experiments that are “failures” in the sense that they do not lead to a successful outcome but do allow adaptation and adjustment through which mastery occurs.
Two Types of Learning Single loop learning • Outcomes cause adjustment of behaviors, like a thermostat. • Goals, beliefs, values, conceptual frameworks, and strategies are taken for granted without critical reflection. • Based on negative feedback and correction of deviation from the norm, Double Loop Learning • Directed to correction of "mistakes" based on defined norms • Implies an extra loop to reconsider existing rules and their validity. • Experimentation allows refocusing
Knowledge Nuggets In knowledge organizations: • Problem solving, improvement and process innovation skills are built at all levels, from the shop floor to senior management • Learning occurs more through experimentation than through information sharing • Tacit knowledge is acquired through experimentation, analysis • There is a cascade of learning and an expectation of sharing knowledge
Toyota’s Model of KM • All individuals regardless of level are capable problem solvers, able to rapidly conceive and executive many changes • The critical role of senior management is to build the process-innovation capabilities of those less senior (Fukanaga for Smith, Smith for group leaders) – not to solve the problems • Learning occurs through experimentation, analysis and reapplication.