Baptist Training Institute SALVATION
John 3:16 16For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. “Salvation involves the redemption of the whole man, and is offered freely to all who accept Jesus Christ as Lord and Saviour, who by His own blood obtained eternal redemption for the believer. In its broadest sense salvation includes regeneration, justification, sanctification, and glorification. There is no salvation apart from personal faith in Jesus Christ as Lord.”
Salvation is the great theme of the Bible. The central focus of the gospel message is the truth that God saves sinners. This is the greatest new the world has ever heard, and it is the very bedrock of the Christian faith.
God’s Righteous Demands • The Bible presents our salvation as rooted in the character of God. God is the Loving Father who saves sinners, even as He is the Holy One of Israel who will judge with righteousness and perfect justice. • Salvation required a sacrifice for sin, however God demonstrated His mercy for man by providing that sacrifice for sin—which is the basis for Propitiation • "Jesus' blood 'propitiated' or satisfied God’s wrath (1:18), so that his holiness was not compromised in forgiving sinners. Some scholars have argued that the word propitiation should be translated expiation (the wiping away of sin), but the word cannot be restricted to the wiping away of sins as it also refers to the satisfaction or appeasement of God’s wrath, turning it to favor (cf. note on John 18:11). God’s righteous anger needed to be appeased before sin could be forgiven, and God in his love sent his Son (who offered himself willingly) to satisfy God’s holy anger against sin. In this way God demonstrated his righteousness, which here refers particularly to his holiness and justice. God’s justice was called into question because in his patience he had overlooked former sins. In other words, how could God as the utterly Holy One tolerate human sin without inflicting full punishment on human beings immediately? Paul’s answer is that God looked forward to the cross of Christ where the full payment for the guilt of sin would be made, where Christ would die in the place of sinners
Propitiation versus Expiation Propitiation literally means to make favorable and specifically includes the idea of dealing with God’s wrath against sinners. Expiation literally means to make pious and implies either the removal or cleansing of sin. The idea of propitiation includes that of expiation as its means; but the word "expiation" has no reference to quenching God’s righteous anger. The difference is that the object of expiation is sin, not God. One propitiates a person, and one expiates a problem. Christ's death was therefore both an expiation and a propitiation. By expiating (removing the problem of) sin God was made propitious (favorable) to us.
Christ’s Atonement • If God had not accomplished our salvation through Christ, that is where the human story would have ended—with sinners facing God’s righteous wrath and without hope. • Paul explained, “God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself” • 2 Corinthians 5:19 (KJV) 19To wit, that God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them; and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. • The Bible reveals the way God accomplished our salvation through Christ. The Cross stands as the very center of the Christian faith. Christ death was an atonement for sin: He died on the cross in the place of sinners. This is why we describe the work of Christ as substitionary atonement . • Christ died in our place.
Christ’s Atonement The Atonement of Christ is the sacrificial work of Jesus for sinners. In his death on the cross, Christ atoned for the sins of humanity such that God is satisfied and reconciliation is accomplished for all who will be redeemed. The obedience and death of Christ on behalf of sinners is the ground of redemption.
Theories of Atonement – Historic Theories • The Ransom Theory: The earliest of all, originating with the Early Church Fathers, this theory claims that Christ offered himself as a ransom (Mark 10:45). Where it was not clear was in its understanding of exactly to whom the ransom was paid. Many early church fathers viewed the ransom as paid to Satan. • The Recapitulation Theory: Originated with Irenaeus (125-202 AD). He sees Christ as the new Adam, who systematically undoes what Adam did. Thus, where Adam was disobedient concerning God's edict concerning the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, Christ was obedient even to death on the wood of a tree. Irenaeus is the first to draw comparisons between Eve and Mary, contrasting the faithlessness of the former with the faithfulness of the latter. In addition to reversing the wrongs done by Adam, Irenaeus thinks of Christ as "recapitulating" or "summing up" human life.
Theories of Atonement – Historic Theories • The Satisfaction (or Commercial) Theory: The formulator of this theory was the medieval theologian Anselm of Canterbury (1034-1109), in his book, Cur Deus Homo (lit. Why the God Man). In his view, God's offended honor and dignity could only be satisfied by the sacrifice of the God-man, Jesus Christ. "Anselm offered compelling biblical evidence that the atonement was not a ransom paid by God to the devil but rather a debt paid to God on behalf of sinners."^^ Anselm's work established a foundation for the Protestant Reformation, specifically the understanding of justification by faith. • The Penal-Substitution Theory: This view was formulated by the 16th century Reformers as an extension of Anselm's Satisfaction theory. Anselm's theory was correct in introducing the satisfaction aspect of Christ's work and its necessity, however the Reformers saw it as insufficient because it was referenced to God's honor rather than his justice and holiness and was couched more in terms of a commercial transaction than a penal substitution. This Reformed view says simply that Christ died for man, in man's place, taking his sins and bearing them for him. The bearing of man's sins takes the punishment for them and sets the believer free from the penal demands of the law: The righteousness of the law and the holiness of God are satisfied by this substitution.
Theories of Atonement – Historic Theories • The Moral-Example Theory (or Moral-Influence Theory): Christ died to influence mankind toward moral improvement. This theory denies that Christ died to satisfy any principle of divine justice, but teaches instead that His death was designed to greatly impress mankind with a sense of God's love, resulting in softening their hearts and leading them to repentance. Thus, the Atonement is not directed towards God with the purpose of maintaining His justice, but towards man with the purpose of persuading him to right action. Formulated by Peter Abelard (1079-1142) partially in reaction against Anselm's Satisfaction theory, this view was held by the 16th century Socinians. Versions of it can be found later in F. D. E. Schleiermacher (1768-1834) and Horace Bushnell (1802-1876). • The Governmental Theory: God made Christ an example of suffering to exhibit to erring man that sin is displeasing to him. God's moral government of the world made it necessary for him to evince his wrath against sin in Christ. Christ died as a token of God's displeasure toward sin and it was accepted by God as sufficient; but actually God does not exact strict justice. This view was formulated by Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) and is subsequently found in Arminianism, Charles Finney, the New England Theology of Jonathan Edwards (the younger), and Methodism.
Sufficiency of Christ’s person and His atoning death • The deity of Christ establishes the infinite intrinsic value of his person. Since Jesus Christ is the God-man, truly God and truly man, his death is also of infinite intrinsic value and all-sufficient as a sacrifice. The book of Hebrews clearly says that the sufficiency of Christ's death negated the need for additional sacrifices. The biblical word translated once for all (Greek ephapax in Rom. 6:10; Heb. 9:26, 28; 10:10) is clearly a contrast with the Old Testament yearly sacrifice on the Day of Atonement and declares the complete sufficiency of Christ's death.
Sufficiency of Christ’s person and His atoning death The infinite intrinsic value and all-sufficiency of Christ's death is a doctrine maintained in the Reformed tradition. The Canons of Dort, which is the historical statement of the so-called "five points of Calvinism" formulated at the Synod of Dort (1618-1619), state: • This death of the Son of God is the only and most perfect sacrifice and satisfaction for sins, of infinite value and worth, abundantly sufficient to expiate the sins of the whole world. • This death is of such great value and worth because the person who submitted to it is not only a true and perfectly holy man, but also the only-begotten Son of God, of the same eternal and infinite essence with the Father and the Holy Spirit, for these qualifications were necessary for our Savior.
Sufficiency of Christ’s person and His atoning death The infinite intrinsic value and all-sufficiency of Christ's death is a doctrine maintained in the Reformed tradition. The Canons of Dort, which is the historical statement of the so-called "five points of Calvinism" formulated at the Synod of Dort (1618-1619), state: • This death is of such great value and worth because it was accompanied by a sense of the wrath and curse of God, which we by our sins had deserved. • John Owen (1616-1683) echos the same position, "It was then the purpose and intention of God that his Son should offer a sacrifice of infinite worth, value, and dignity, sufficient in itself for the redeeming of all and every man, if it had pleased the Lord to employ it to that purpose. • Sufficient we say, then, was the sacrifice of Christ was and is for the redemption of the whole world, and for the expiation of all the sins of all and every man in the world,"
The Only Way Romans 10:13 13For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved. John 3:16 16For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. Rev. W. A. Criswell (Pastor First Baptist Church Dallas, 1909 – 2002 ) “Faith is always a volitional word. It is dynamic, never passive or lethargic. It moves; it marches; it is a commitment….Faith is never intellectual assent or historical acknowledgment.”
The Only Way Romans 10:9 9That if thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. • Believing with the heart—the very center of the human being—presents a wonderful definition of saving faith. • Faith is assuming the attitude of entire dependence on God. Nothing else is faith. • Refusing to assume this attitude is what keeps a man out of the kingdom of God.
The Only Way Salvation comes only to those who accept Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord. There is no other savior, and there is no other gospel that saves! Peter declared to Jerusalem • Acts 4:12 12Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved. Jesus told Thomas • John 14:6 6Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.
Aspects of Salvation Grace Grace reminds us that we are saved through God’s unmerited favor. Grace affirms our absolute dependence on God. • We do not deserve salvation, and we can do nothing to earn it. • Ephesians 2:8-98For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: 9Not of works, lest any man should boast.
Aspects of Salvation Faith “Faith means to believe.” • Faith is more than mere intellect. It involves an act of will whereby one trusts in Christ and commits one’s self to Him, to His will and way. Here is how salvation works and the new birth comes about. • I put my faith in God’s grace. It is not the faith that saves; it is the grace that saves. Faith just lays hold of that grace. • Imagine Jesus’ nail-pierced hand reaching down from heaven, saying, “I love you. I want to save you and when you put your hand of faith in God’s hand of grace, that is salvation.”
Aspects of Salvation Regeneration “The new birth.” • The work of God’s grace whereby believers become new creatures in Christ Jesus. Jesus taught the biblical concept of new birth to Nicodemus. • John 3:3 3Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. • 1 Peter 1:3 3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead,
Aspects of Salvation Repentance “Repentance from sin is godly sorrow for sin.” Repentance is a GENUINE turning away from what had once ensnared us. • On the day of Pentecost, Peter commanded the crowd “Repent…and be baptized, each of you, in the name of Jesus the Messiah for the forgiveness of your sins.” (Acts 2:38) • At Mars Hill Paul warned the Athenians that “God commands all people everywhere to repent.”(Acts 17:30) • Standing before King Agrippa, Paul defended the gospel, reminding the king that he had consistently called both Jews and Gentiles to “repent and turn to God” (Acts 26:20) • Repenting of sin means that one changes his thoughts and feelings about sin, resolving to forsake sin and live for God.
Aspects of Salvation Justification “is God’s gracious and full acquittal of sinners who believe in Christ.” Repentance is a GENUINE turning away from what had once ensnared us. • In Justification God declares that, on the basis of the atoning death of Christ to whom we are joined by faith, we have paid the penalty of the law for our sins—death. Jesus, to whom we are joined by faith, died for us so that the penalty has been paid. • We are forgiven, justified, and declared righteous • Justification is the act of a judge acquitting one who is charged with a crime. It is the opposite of condemnation. • Justification is a higher blessing of grace, than pardon. A Pardon frees from the penalty due to sin, but it does not fully restore the lost favor of God… • Every penitent believer is both pardoned and justified. As repentance and faith are duties mutually implying each other, so pardon and justification are twin blessings of grace, bestowed together through Jesus Christ.
Aspects of Salvation Sanctification “Sanctification is the progressive work of the Holy Spirit.” Through the Holy Spirit in the process of Sanctification, the believer is set apart to God’s purpose and moves into Christian maturity. • When the regenerated believer receives the Holy Spirit, the sanctification process begins as the new creature grows in grace and understands the things of God. • WE believe that we move from the elementary truths of God into a deeper truth • Hebrews 5:12-14 12For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. 13For every one that useth milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness: for he is a babe. 14But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, even those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.
Aspects of Salvation Glorification “Glorification completes the saving work of God.” This is the culmination of salvation and is the final blessed and abiding state of the redeemed. • 2 Corinthians 4:17 17For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory; Our glorification awaits Christ’s appearing. • 1 John 3:2 2Beloved, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be: but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him; for we shall see him as he is.