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4-1 The Rock Cycle

4-1 The Rock Cycle

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4-1 The Rock Cycle

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  1. 4-1 The Rock Cycle Every trip is unique.

  2. Processes that shape the Earth: • 1--weathering (from water, wind, ice, and heat)—breaking down and wearing away of rocks into sediments • 2--erosion(water, wind, ice, gravity)—sediments are moved • 3--deposition—sediments are dropped and collected (builds up land) • 4--heat • melting and cooling from magma/lava • a little leads to metamorphism • 5--pressure—buried sediment is squeezed by the weight of the overlying layers (compacting) • 6--uplift—rocks are pushed up to the surface (where weathering and erosion begins)

  3. Questions: • Which processes was responsible for producing the Grand Canyon? • >>>>weathering and erosion • A landslide is an example of erosion caused by _ • >>>>gravity • What causes a sand dune to move from one place to another? • >>>>>>wind (sometimes hurricane storm surge) • It has taken almost 2 ________year to create the Grand Canyon in Arizona. • >>>>>billion

  4. How long would it take to go through the rock cycle? • >>millions of years! • Why are metamorphic rocks rarely formed near the earth’s surface? • >>not enough heat and pressure • Why is the rock cycle most active at continental plate boundaries? • >>plenty of heat and pressure • Why are most of the earth’s rocks much younger than the earth as a whole? • >>rocks get recycled • How did the Grand Canyon form? (it’s 1,600 meters deep over 2 billion years old) • >>>Colorado River (weathering and erosion)

  5. Chapter 4 QUESTIONS: • Igneous rock forms when • a. magma cools and hardens • b. minerals crystallize out of water • c. heat and pressure change the composition and texture of a rock • d. natural cement binds rock fragments together

  6. Rock in which the composition and texture of the rock have been changed by heat and pressure is call _____________ rock. • metamorphic • Volcanic activity on Earth’s surface most likely results in the formation of which of the following types of rock? • a. intrusive igneous rock • b. extrusive igneous rock • c. clastic sedimentary rock • d. chemical sedimentary rock

  7. A ___________ ____________ rock forms when rock fragments are cemented together by a mineral such as calcite or quartz. • clastic sedimentary • Which process forms sediments? • weathering

  8. Buried rock is exposed at Earth’s surface by the combination of which two processes? • uplift and erosion (possibly plate tectonics) • Stratification (layering) occurs as the result of which of the following processes? • a. the cooling and solidification of magma • b. the partial or complete melting of rock • c. the deformation of rock by heat and pressure • d. the deposition of sediments in a body of water

  9. Which of the following statements is the best summary of the rock cycle? • A. Rocks deep below ground rise to the surface, are moved back underground, then rise to the surface again. • B. Igneous rock and sedimentary rock change to metamorphic rock. • C. The rock cycle has a single pathway from one type of rock to another type of rock. • D. Every type of rock can be changed into every other type of rock. The type of rock that forms depends on the condition that affect the rock.

  10. What type of rock forms when heat and pressure change the structure, texture, and/or composition of sedimentary rock (or any other type of rock)? • A. Igneous • B. Metamorphic • C. Sedimentary • D. Clastic

  11. Guess What Time it is? • Time for performance tasks: • 9 • 10 • 11