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Objective 3. Understanding the interdependence of organisms and the environment Part 1: Viruses and Bacteria Part 2: Evolution Part 3: Interaction among Organisms Part 4: Plants. Part 1 Viruses and Bacteria.
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Objective 3 Understanding the interdependence of organisms and the environment Part 1: Viruses and Bacteria Part 2: Evolution Part 3: Interaction among Organisms Part 4: Plants
CellsBasic structure of all living things! Contain special part that preform special functions Prokaryote Eukaryote
What you NEED to know… • Bacteria and Viruses can both cause illness. • Antibiotics (usually pills) can cure BACTERIAL infections • Viral infections have to be treated with a vaccine (shots).
Mouth Sores are viruses…about 80% of US citizens have some form of Herpes…Kiss me!
Viruses not classified as “living” things. • They can’t reproduce their own genetic material. • They need to trick their host into making more viruses. • Once you have a virus your body can usually prevent future infection (assuming you’re not dead). • Viruses don’t eat, grow, play, or make friends……
Antibodies • You usually don’t get the same virus twice because of antibodies. • Your body “remembers” what a virus looks like and how it beat it. • When your body finds the virus again it releases the anti-body that works against it. • Vaccines work the same way. • Note: Antibodies and antibiotics are different! “VACCINE LAB”
Examples of viruses: • AIDS • HPV • Herpes • The Flu • The Common cold • Smallpox • Almost everything you were vaccinated for as a kid. • 1918 super-flu • Bird Flu
Varicella-zoster virus • Chicken Pox! • Herpes virus
Notice: NO ORGANELLES = no metabolism = VIRUS!!!
Bacteria are ALIVE! • Bacteria are “primitive” life forms • They are single-celled organisms. • They move around, make babies very quickly, eat, and live on everything! • Cause most food-borne illnesses. • Can be treated with antibiotics (pills).
Bacteria are Everywhere! • Bacteria can reproduce or double in quantity as fast as every 17 minutes! • Microbes can get in your body if they can get past your skin/mucous membranes! • Think of stuff you put close to your mouth……
Heat kills Bacteria! Hmmm……Eat me! Hmmmm…..Bacteria
Gross Facts • On average, the area where you rest your hand on the desk has 10,000,000 bacteria. • More than a toilet seat, drinking fountain, keyboard, and refrigerator handle combined! • A good reason not to put your heads down on my desks
Common Bacteria • E. Coli (yum!) • Anthrax… • Tetanus…rusty nails unite! • Staphylococcus (staph) • Streptococcus (strep throat) • Salmonella…raw chicken does a body good!
Staph infection This makes… This…
Note the flagellum • How would you like this little guy swimming around with you in the bathtub?
Part 2Evolution • Evolution is the change over time!! • Species will adapt to their surrounding the better they adapt the more babies they can make and pass there genes to .
Back to the big picture: • Something usually happens to kick start a “big change.” • Examples: a new predator or disease, a new medicine, a change in the weather, or geographic isolation. The end result is a change in the gene pool of the species or a new species all together. Example: Aggies- have grown so different from the rest of the world that they can no longer function outside of College Station.
The results • Plants and animals that do well under certain conditions have thrived…. • evolution via hummingbirds • Leaf cutter ants, etc See the insect? Neither can the things that want to eat it!
Why dark on top, light on the bottom? This is a VERY common trait in species that live in the water……
Part 3 The Food Web • Everything is connected as energy and matter flow through the different organisms
You need to know • What a food web, or chain is and how to read one. • The differences between parasitism and mutualism, and commensalism. • What Consumers, producers, carnivores, omnivores, and herbivores are.
The food chain • Real simple….. • Producers make food • Primary consumers eat producers. • Secondary consumers eat primary consumers. • This can keep going until you reach the top of the food chain (us).
Decomposers clean up when its all over…. The producer The primary consumer Tertiary consumer Secondary consumer
Mass and energy If you could add up the mass of all the plants in the world do you think they would weigh more than all of the animals in the world? You would have a LOT more plant material than anything else. There is also more energy on the “bottom” of a food pyramid. It takes a lot of plants to feed animals.
Herbivores • Only eat plants. • These will ALWAYS be primary consumers!!!
Omnivores • Eat plants and animals. • Can be both primary consumers and secondary consumers.
Carnivores • Only eat meat. • Usually big and scary. • Always at least secondary consumers.
Parasitism vs mutualism Vs Commensalism • A parasite is something that lives off (or even in) something else and doesn’t benefit the host. • Parasites can even kill their hosts. Disease causing larvae. Bug-eating fungi Flounder with parasite egg sacs exiting eyes (actual parasite lives in brain) Bug-eating fungi
Tape worm head Cordyceps mind control fungus Bot Fly Lamprey eel Parasitic wasp Follicle mite Rafflesia
Mutualism is not parasitism In a mutualistic relationship both organisms benefit. Lichen (fungus/algae combo) One gets clean, the other gets full.
Commensalism Only one organism is helped the other is unaffected Fish get home and the sea anemone doesn't even care
Salads All you could ever possibly want to know about plants. Well.. For the TAKS test anyway
Flowers and Fruit (and nuts, and berries, and seeds) All serve the same purpose: These are the reproductive organs of plants. • Flowers can be pollinated by wind, insects, birds, bats, etc. • Seeds, fruits, and nuts are plant embryos waiting to develop.
World’s largest nut: nicknamed “the love nut” (I’m not joking) Pistachios flower Stinky fruit Mixed nuts: unsalted
Roots and Stems The transport systems of the plant. Made of Xylem and Phloem (2 different tubes). • Transport water and nutrients to the rest of the plant. • Provide structure (stems) and anchor the plant (roots).
General Sherman (Redwood) Might be the world’s largest tree Boab person
The Boab prison tree, Darby Australia Once used to house prisoners overnight while transporting between 2 colonies
What plants need • Sunlight (for photosynthesis) • Water (also for photosynthesis) • Carbon dioxide (again.. Photosynthesis) • Nutrients from soil (nitrogen, potassium, etc. etc.)- Remember plants are living things that need “vitamins” to live.