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Chapter 10: Expansion & Conflict (1820-1860) PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 10: Expansion & Conflict (1820-1860)

Chapter 10: Expansion & Conflict (1820-1860)

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Chapter 10: Expansion & Conflict (1820-1860)

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  1. Chapter 10: Expansion & Conflict (1820-1860) Section 2: American Expansionism Pages: 323-327

  2. American Expansionism • In 1845 relations between the United States and Mexico reached a new low • James K. Polk (1845-1849) President of United States • James K. Polk, a strong expansionist from Tennessee, • US Congress voted to annex Texas in March 1845, and many people felt it was a short time before war broke-out

  3. American Expansionism • TEXAS ANNEXATION: (323-324) • Convinced that the United States was destined to expand westward, many Americans believed that Texas should be added to the Union as soon as possible • Others opposed annexation because Texas allowed slavery • The issue quickly stirred debate in Congress

  4. American Expansionism • TEXAS ANNEXATION: (323-324) • The debate over annexation (232) • Supporters of annexation of Texas feared Texas might become an ally of Great Britain if it were not admitted to the United States; Great Britain wanted Texas to serve as a source of cotton and market for British goods • Opponents of annexation, however, feared that the admission of Texas would increase the slave states’ power in Texas – MORE SLAVE THAN FREE STATES

  5. American Expansionism • TEXAS ANNEXATION: (323-324) • The debate over annexation (323) • The Election of 1844: • James K. Polk (Democrat Party), former governor of Tennessee, versus Henry Clay of Kentucky (Whig Party) • Polk was considered a dark-horse candidate – had little chance of winning – but he ran an effective campaign • Polk called for the annexation of Texas and the acquisition of more territory during his campaign • In contrast, Clay attempted to sidestep the annexation controversy – did not take a side • Polk won by a narrow margin • Despite the close victory, Polk interpreted his victory as a public cry for annexation

  6. American Expansionism • TEXAS ANNEXATION: (323-324) • Conflict with Mexico (324) • Polk’s victory for President in 1844 increased tensions with Mexico • Mexico said that if the United States tried to annex Texas it would be “equivalent to a declaration of war against Mexico • Congress ignored this warning from Mexico and voted to admit Texas to the Union on March 3, 1845. • Mexico responded by breaking diplomatic ties with the United States

  7. American Expansionism • TEXAS ANNEXATION: (323-324) • Conflict with Mexico (324) • Polk increased tensions with Mexico by demanding that Mexico recognize the Rio Grande as its northern border • To back up his demand, Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to move into the disputed region

  8. American Expansionism • TEXAS ANNEXATION: (323-324) • Conflict with Mexico (324) • After receiving word that Mexico was willing to negotiate, Polk sent John Slidell, a Louisiana lawyer and politician, to Mexico in late 1845 • Slidell’s mission was to persuade Mexican officials to accept the Rio Grande boundary and to sell New Mexico and California to the United States • When Mexican citizens learned of this, they reacted angrily • The Mexican government refused to deal with John Slidell • On May 9, 1846, Polk received the news he wanted: Mexican troops had crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a U.S. patrol • United States now declares war on Mexico

  9. American Expansionism • THE MEXICAN WAR: (324-326) • AGAINST THE WAR: • Whigs and Northerners were critical of the Mexican War • Congressman Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, introduced a series of “spot resolutions” in December 1847. • Abraham Lincoln challenged the President to identify the spot on U.S. soil where American blood had been shed. • If the site was indeed U.S. territory, Lincoln said, he would support the war; if not, he would oppose the war as unjustified. • Some abolitionists charged that the “real goal” of Mr. Polk’s war, was to acquire more slave territory. • Fredrick Douglass was against the War • Henry David Thoreau was against the war and spent a night in jail because he would not pay taxes that might support the war. He wrote this in an essay called, “Civil Disobedience.”

  10. American Expansionism • THE MEXICAN WAR: (324-326) • FOR THE WAR: • Most Americans, particularly southerners and westerners who wanted Mexican land, supported the war • Congress authorized the army to enlist 50,000 volunteers – most were young men eager for adventure

  11. American Expansionism • THE MEXICAN WAR: (324-326) • The Two Sides Clash (325) • General Zachary Taylor led his troops into central Mexico, while other U.S. forces seized New Mexico and California • Stephen Kearny – occupied Santa Fe and seized control of New Mexico • Captain John C. Fremont, a U.S. army officer and explorer headed an expedition into California in 1845, and led the revolt • On June 14 the settlers declared that California was an independent republic and raised a flag with the image of a grizzle bear painted on it • The flag gave the uprising in California its name – THE BEAR FLAG REVOLT

  12. American Expansionism • THE MEXICAN WAR: (324-326) • THE SIEGE OF MEXICO CITY (326) • The bold siege of Mexico City marked the final campaign of war in Mexico. • Led by General Winfield Scott, some 10,000 U.S. soldiers. • The Mexicans fought hard but Scott’s forces reached Mexico City

  13. American Expansionism • THE TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO (326) • In February 1848 the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the War between Mexico and the United States • Mexico gave up all claims to Texas and surrendered a vast territory known as Mexican Cession – This territory included the present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Wyoming • In return the United States agreed to pay Mexico $15 million and take over the payment of damages claimed by U.S. citizens against Mexico • The United States also agreed to grant full citizenship to Mexicans living in the Mexican Cession • Gadsden Purchase, orchestrated by U.S. diplomat James Gadsden, the Untied States secured additional land south of the Gila River for $10 million, acquiring parts of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico

  14. American Expansionism • MEXICAN AMERICANS (327) • As a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States gained some 80,000 Spanish-speaking citizens along with its new territory • Many Americans looked down on the culture of Mexican Americans, with its blend of Spanish and American Indian influences. • The resulting atmosphere of prejudice contributed to Mexican American rebellions in the Southwest • Juan Cortina – a member of a prominent Tejano family in South Texas, headed one such rebellion • U.S. troops eventually took control of the region, but Cortina continued his raids into the 1870s.

  15. THE END