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Cervical Cancer

Cervical Cancer

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Cervical Cancer

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  1. Cervical Cancer Epidemiology of a Chronic Disease Exercise By Mary Murphy April 2008

  2. Epidemiological classification: Cancer/neoplastic disease Site: neck of the womb referred to as the Cervix. The outer and inner cells of the cervix can become cancerous leading to squamous cell cervical cancer or adeno-carcinoma of the cervix. The former, acccountable for 90-95% cervical cancers. The transformation zone is the area where cells are most likely to be abnormal and is the site where cervical screens are taken. What is the clinical problem? Above: diagram female reproductive system Source: assessed 28/3/08


  4. How big is the problem? World: “Cervical cancer accounts for 1 in 10 of all cancers diagnosed and more than 273,000 deaths in women worldwide every year……In developing countries, cervical cancer is the commonest cancer to affect women, and contributed to 85% of new cases and deaths worldwide in 2002….” • Source: accessed 14/4/08 UK: About 2,700 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year.  Overall, 2 out of every 100 cancers diagnosed in women are cervical cancers.  But it is the second most common cancer in women under 35 years old. In 2005 UK had 8 in 100,000. Source: accessed 16/4/08

  5. Treatment for Cervical Cancer • Hysterectomy. • Radical trachelectomy. • Radiation. • Chemotherapy • Source: accessed 29/3/08

  6. Risk Factor & Co-factors Infection with some types of HPV virus • Low socio-economic status • Long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, • high parity, • tobacco smoking, • co-infection with HIV • Other STD infections • Large number of sexual partners • Sexually active before age 18 • Early menarche

  7. …….But the real villain • 99.7% cases caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV 16 & 18 especially assocated with cervical cancer. • HPV is a very common virus transmitted through direct transmission person to person, to both men and women • Up to 75% of people of reproductive age will be infected with HPV at some point in their lives. Majority of women will not get cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is rare while HPV infection is common. Source: accessed 28/03/08

  8. Ten most frequent HPV types in women with invasive cervicalcancer in United Kingdomas compared to Northern Europe and the World WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Summary report on HPV and cervical cancer statistics in United Kingdom. 2007. [6/4/08]. Available at www. who. int/ hpvcentre

  9. Prevalance of Cervical Cancer Source: assessed 30/3/08

  10. Incidence Rates of Invasive Cervical Cancer Source: assessed 30/3/08

  11. InvasiveCervical cancer incidence by age Source: accessed 30/3/2008

  12. Mortality Rates for Cervical Cancer 2005 Source: accessed 30/3/2008

  13. UK Cervical Cancer Incidence & Mortality Source: Office for National Stats. Bulletin: 2007/14/HSCIC –Cervical Screening Programme England 2006-07

  14. Cervical cancer mortality trends Source: accessed 30/3/2008

  15. Age-standardised incidence & mortality rates, Of cervical cancer by region of the world, 2002 estimates Source: accessed 30/3/2008

  16. European age-standardised incidence of and mortality,cervical cancer by deprivation category, England and Wales, 1990-93 Source: assessed 30/3/08

  17. The graph below shows the incidence rates in the U.S. for cervical cancer from 1975–2004 by race and ethnicity. Cervical Cancer ‡Source: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, National Cancer Institute, NCI accessed 16/4/08

  18. Secondary prevention -Cervical Screening • Screening ages (years) 25-64; (previously 20-65) 3.4m screened 06/07 • Screening interval (years) 3 years for ages 25-49, every 5 years for ages 50-64 • Lifetime number of recommended smears 12? • 79.2% in 2006 of eligible women had Pap test in last 5 years. Compared with 79.5% last year and 82% in 1997 • Smear taker - General practitioners or general practice nurses • Cervical screening - including the cost of treating cervical abnormalities - has been estimated to cost around £157 million a year in England Sources: Office for National Stats. Bulletin: 2007/14/HSCIC –Cervical Screening Programme England 2006-07 & accessed 6/4/08

  19. Primary prevention – HPV Vaccine • difficult to prevent HPVinfections. Most adults will have had HPV at some time in their lives. Direct Transmission mode person to person • Condoms are not effective - because HPV has a field effect, it found on skin not covered by the condom and skin-to-skin contact transmits HPV. • Available vaccines for HPV 16 & 18. They may provide protectection against a few other types, but not all types of HPV. • Cost - £100m a year routine programme vaccinate girls 12-13 from September 2008 • Catch up programme £200m over 2009/10 and 2010/11.

  20. HPV VACCINE ISSUES • Very expensive • Targeted vs. universal vaccinations • the age and gender of vaccine recipients • the acceptability of this vaccine to health care providers, adolescents, and parents • the effect of this vaccine on cervical cancer screening.

  21. About Data from Cancer Registries!! • It is dynamic and only ever a snapshot in time. • It is mandatory for deaths to be registered within five days. • It is not mandatory for incidence data to be reported. It comes from a number of sources, it is usually 2 years • National coverage in UK was not achieved until 1962 ……………and lots of other things too!!

  22. New – Invasive Cancer Audit • Future Developments - For all newly diagnosed cervical cancers a review will be conducted of a woman’s complete screening history by Quality Assurance Reference Centres across England. • It’s purpose - to measure the effectiveness of cervical screening programme, to identify areas of good practice and identify where improvements can be made

  23. Thank you for listening!