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Geography. MeXICO. Mexico has a long and colorful history. Over 500 years ago, people from Europe sailed to Mexico. Before that, Mexico had some of the world’s greatest civilizations. Today, Mexico is highly industrialized.

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  1. Geography


  2. Mexico has a long and colorful history. Over 500 years ago, people from Europe sailed to Mexico. Before that, Mexico had some of the world’s greatest civilizations. Today, Mexico is highly industrialized. Mexico is an important resource of workers, resources and food for the United States. Mexico-our southern neighbor
  3. Mexico-Geography statistics Population: 99,734,000 Area: 754,120 miles Length of Coastline: 5,794 miles Length of Roads: 155,250 miles Longest River: Rio Grande (1,900 miles) Highest Mountain: Pico de Orizaba (18,700 ft.) Major Cities: Mexico City (capital), Guadalajara, Monterrey Major Religions: Roman Catholic, Protestant Christian Major languages: Spanish, native languages Official Currency: Peso Workforce: 36.6 million
  4. Mexico is just south of the United States. It is shaped like a triangle. Mexico is the widest in the north where it borders the United States. That border is 1,429 miles long. In the south Mexico is bordered by the Central American countries of Belize and Guatemala. The Pacific Ocean borders Mexico on the west and the Gulf of Mexico borders it on the east. Where is Mexico Located?
  5. CENTRAL PLATEAU-The largest region in Mexico. COASTAL PLAINS REGION- form a rim around the central region of plateau and mountains. DESERT REGION-This is in the northwestern part of Mexico. YUCATAN PENISULA REGION-This region is in the southeastern part of Mexico. PHYSICAL REGIONS OF MEXICO
  6. A plateau is an area of level highland The plateau is divided into two parts. The northern half is dry and farmers must use irrigation in order to raise crops. The southern half of the plateau is higher than the northern half. This area gets more rain so more crops are grown, especially corn. The southern half is Mexico’s heartland. Central plateau region
  7. Most of Mexico’s people live in the southern part of this region. In this southern part is the Valley of Mexico. This valley is 50 miles long and 40 miles wide. Mexico City, the capital of Mexico, is located in this large valley. Mexico City is the 3rd largest city in the World. It is bigger than any city in the United States. There are over 20 million people in Mexico City. Central plateau region
  8. Mexico City
  9. This area of Mexico has many active volcanoes. Some of these volcanoes are active enough to produce lava. The Central Plateau also has many earthquakes. Earthquakes happen when the Earth’s plates shift. Four important tectonic plates come together in Mexico. Central plateau region
  10. Mexico City Earthquake of 1985 Popocatepetl-A very active volcano
  11. This area is divided up into two coastal regions. The eastern coastal plain runs along the Gulf of Mexico, from the Texas border to the Yucatan Peninsula. This plain is warm and the southern half is a jungle. The western coastal plain along the Pacific is more narrow and dry than the gulf coastal plain. Farmers use irrigation to grow cotton, wheat, and other crops. Coastal plains region
  12. Hurricanes – A common occurrence in the coastal plain. Hurricane damage in Mexico
  13. The largest desert in this region is called the Sonoran Desert. Another desert lies in the most western part of Mexico. This desert is called Baja California. Baja California is a peninsula, which means that it is a strip of land surrounded by water on three sides. Few people live in this region. Desert region
  14. Sonoran Desert Baja California
  15. This area is near the coast and somewhat flat. Limestone rock formed most of the peninsula. This soft rock dissolves in water. Because of this there are huge underground caves. These are some of the biggest caves in the world. This area is not good for farming, so there is a small population that lives here. Yucatan peninsula region
  16. Yucatan Peninsula Cave Diving in the Yucatan Peninsula
  17. This is Mexico’s main physical feature. High mountain ranges rise on the east, west, and south of the Central Plateau. The Sierra Madre Oriental (The Eastern Sierras) is the southern part of the Rocky Mountains that are in the United States. The Sierra Madre Occidental (The Western Sierras) continues in California as the Sierra Nevada range. Deciduous forests cover the northern part of the Sierra Madre Occidental. Mountains in mexico
  18. The Madre del Sur (The Southern Sierras) extend to the isthmus of Tehuantepec. An isthmus is narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas. A narrow plain separates these mountains from the Pacific Ocean. Tropical rain forests cover the Southern Sierras. This type of thick forest grows in warm areas where a great deal of rain falls. Mountains in mexico
  19. Mexico’s tallest mountain is Pico de Orizaba, which is an old volcano. It is 18,700 feet high. The people of Mexico City can see two snow-covered mountains from their homes. One is Popocatepetl, which means “Smoking Mountain”. The other is Ixtacihuatl, which means “White Mountain”. Mexico’s tallest mountains
  20. Pico de Orizaba Mexico’s Highest Mountain Ixtacihuatl A very high mountain in Mexico.
  21. Topographic Map of Mexico
  22. Mexico has a long coastline with some of the world’s most beautiful beaches. The government of Mexico has developed some beaches into resorts. Cancun is a popular resort on the Yucatán Peninsula in the east on the Gulf of Mexico. Acupulco, Puerto Vallarta, and Mazatlan are other resorts in the west on the Pacific Ocean. Coast Resorts in Mexico
  23. Acupulco Cancun Puerto Vallarta Mazatlan
  24. No major rivers cross Mexico. Most rivers are short and drop quickly from the high mountains to the coast, or they drain into large lakes. The largest lakes in Mexico are Lake Chaplan in the state of Jalisco and Lake Patzcuaro in Michoacan. The Rio Bravo del Norte (Rio Grande) is the largest river in Mexico and forms part of the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Major bodies of water in mexico
  25. Lake Chapala Lake Patzcuaro
  26. Much of Mexico has a steppe climate. This is a dry climate that is usually found near deserts. Mexican deserts have a little more rain than other deserts in the world. They are still very dry because of the high mountains that surround them. The steppe can get very hot and cold with temperatures as high as 90◦ F. and as cold as 32◦ Climate in mexico
  27. Some of Mexico’s coastal areas have a tropical savanna climate. They are hot all year around. These areas receive a lot of rain, but have a drier season during the winter. The savanna is a place where there is lots of tall grass with a few trees. Climate in mexico
  28. Without mountains, Mexico would be hot most of the time. Temperature usually gets hotter the closer a place is to the equator. However, altitude affects climate as well. Altitude is the height a place is above sea level. A high altitude brings cooler temperatures. Rainfall also usually increases at a high altitude. Because mountains cover Mexico, its climate can be both hot and cold. Mountains and climate
  29. Climate Map of Mexico
  30. Three names are given to the three different zones of altitude that exist in Mexico Tierra Caliente-these are the hot areas at lower altitudes. Tierra templada-between 3,000 to 6,000 feet above sea level. There areas are not to hot or cold. This is where most of Mexico’s people live. Tierra fria-altitudes over 8,000 feet where it is colder and frost may form. mExico’s altitudinal zones
  31. Before Europeans came to Mexico, many native groups lived there. They lived in villages and farmed the land. Others developed large empires. An empire is a nation that rules a large area of land. The Mayans built an empire in the Yucatan and Guatemala. The Aztecs and Toltecs formed empires in the Valley of Mexico. The culture of mexico
  32. At one time, millions of native people lived in Mexico. Europeans brought diseases, such as measles and smallpox. These killed many native people. As many as 90 percent of them died by the end of the 1500’s. Descendants of these native people make up 10% of the population. These people have kept much of their culture because they live in rural, isolated areas. The culture of mexico
  33. Aztec Empire Mayan Ruins
  34. In 1519, a Spaniard named Hernando Cortes sailed to Mexico. He met the Aztecs, who were the native people of the area. He also met some smaller native groups who did not like the Aztecs. These smaller groups helped Cortes defeat the Aztecs. Mestizos
  35. More and more Spaniards arrived in Mexico. Some of them married native women. These people of mixed European and native ancestry are called mestizos. About 75% of the Mexican people are mestizos. Their culture is a blend between the two cultures they came from, but they tend to be more European than native. Some are wealthy, while others are poor. mestizos
  36. About 15% of the Mexican people are neither native people nor mestizos. This 15% is made up of immigrants. Most of them come from countries in Central America. Some came to escape political troubles, or to find better jobs. People from Japan, Canada, Spain, and the United States. Most of them are sent there by the companies they work for. Other cultures in mexico
  37. Because Spain ruled Mexico for many years, Spanish is its official language. The government, businesses, and schools use Spanish. Many native people speak their native languages. There are as many as 50 native languages spoken in Mexico. Over a million native people only speak their native languages. Words like tortilla and tamale come from the language of the Aztecs, not from Spanish. Languages in mexico
  38. The Spanish also brought their religion to Mexico. More than 90% of the people in Mexico are Roman Catholic. Some of the poor have gone away from the Catholic church and joined Protestant churches. Many people in rural areas belong to these protestant religions. Religion in mexico
  39. Catholic Cathedral- Mexico City LDS Temple-Mexico City
  40. In the last 100 years Mexico’s population has exploded. In 1900, Mexico had 13 million people, today the population is close to 100 million. Nearly 1/3 of the population is under the age of 15. This growth has caused problems like high unemployment. The government struggles to provide basic services for its people. Population trends in mexico
  41. Most Mexicans used to live in small farming villages. Today, over two-thirds of Mexico’s people live in urban areas. This is a trend throughout the world. One out of every five Mexicans live in Mexico City. Between 22 and 23 million people live in Mexico City and its surrounding areas. This gigantic city was built on the top of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. Where do most mexicans live?
  42. This is a city of many differences. It has beautiful tree-lines streets and tall buildings. It also has some of the worst slums in the world. Slums are poor, overcrowded areas. Mexico City has many busy, noisy city markets There are many horrible traffic jams that are much worse than U.S. Cities Mexico city
  43. The Many Parts of Mexico City
  44. Guadalajara is Mexico’s second largest city. It is also located on the Central Plateau. It is an important and growing industrial center. Monterrey is the largest city in Northern Mexico. It produces much of Mexico’s steel and iron. Tampico and Vera Cruz are Mexico’s biggest ports. Both sit on the Gulf of Mexico. Vera Cruz is a major rail center. Acapulco, on the Pacific coast, is also an important port. Other major cities in mexico
  45. Major Cities in Mexico
  46. Guadalajara Monterrey Guadalajara Vera Cruz
  47. The most important natural resource Mexico has is oil. Most of the oil that has been discovered is along the Gulf of Mexico. Most of the oil and natural gas fields are located offshore. Offshore means that they are in water not land. Mexico’s economy depends a lot on oil. A lot of gas and oil is exported to the U.S.A. Oil in mexico
  48. Offshore Oil Rig Examples of Offshore Drilling at Different Water Depths
  49. Mexico has many mineral resources. Minerals are materials that are valuable, solid, and found in the earth. Workers in Mexico mine uranium, mercury, iron ore, coal, zinc, copper, lead, and silver. Mexico is the worlds leading producer of silver. The biggest mining regions are in the Central Plateau and the Sierra Madre Occidental. Mexico also has large forest resources. Other natural resources
  50. Only about 12 percent of Mexico’s land can be used for farming. About 25% of Mexico’s people are farmers. At one time rich landowners controlled almost all the land. In 1910, there was a revolution. A revolution is the overthrowing of a government. Because of this revolution, land reform occurred that took land from the wealthy and gave it to the poor. Land reform in Mexico
  51. The largest manufacturing industry in Mexico is producing metal products. Other important manufacturing products are cars, textiles, chemicals, food products, electrical goods, glass, and paper. There are many foreign-owned assembly plants near the U.S.-Mexico border. Companies from the U.S. produce goods in Mexico and then sell the finished goods in the United States. Manufacturing in mexico
  52. A Service industry is a job or business that provides a service directly to a customer. The biggest service industries are tourism, banking, and insurance. Tourism is the biggest service industry because tourists come to Mexico for the sunshine, beautiful beaches, and scenery. They also visit the remains of Mexico’s ancient ruins. Service industries in mexico
  53. Mexico, the United States, and Canada signed the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994. These means that these three countries got rid of trade barriers. A barrier divides one thing from another. Trade barriers divide countries because they limit imports or put special taxes on them. Nafta
  54. Products from all three NAFTA countries cross international borders easily. Mexico does more than two-thirds of its trade with the U.S. Mexico hopes that the U.S. will trade more with them. They also hope U.S. companies will continue to invest money in Mexico. This would lead to more jobs for people in Mexico. nafta
  55. U.S. President Bill Clinton signing NAFTA in 1994. A negative view of NAFTA
  56. There is a great gap between the rich and poor in Mexico. At least 40 percent of Mexico’s population today lives in poverty. Rural areas experience a lot of poverty. Millions of peasants, Mexico’s small farmers and farm workers remain poor. The poorest people in Mexico are its native people. Poverty in mexico
  57. In 1994, a group called the Zapatistas raised and army and tried to overthrow the government. They were upset over NAFTA and the government’s treatment of the poor. A lot of poor people have turned to the drug trade to make money. The sale and distribution of illegal drugs has not been stopped by the U.S. and Mexican governments. It is not easy to do this. Other problems in mexico
  58. Drug money seized by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) The beginnings of a new border wall being built between the U.S. and Mexico.
  59. This is the money a country owes to other governments. In the 1970’s and 1980’s, Mexico borrowed huge sums of money to pay for industrial development. Mexico owes a large amount of money. Because of this debt, government cut back on imports, medical care, education, and care for the elderly. Foreign debt
  60. Air pollution is a serious problem in Mexico City. It may cause up to 100,000 deaths a year. Millions of tons of untreated waste flow into rivers each year. Mexico City produces 11,000 tons of garbage everyday, but only 75 percent of it is actually collected. Deforestation and soil erosion are also problems. Environmental problems in mexico
  61. The Smog of Mexico City Lack of Garbage Collection in Mexico City is a big problem
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